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General Requirements for a BSL-3/4 Laboratory

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General Requirements for a BSL-3/4 Laboratory Mircea Panait, Ovidiu Ciungradi, Adrian Onu, Dorel Lucian Radu Classification of infective microorganisms by risk group ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Requirements for a BSL-3/4 Laboratory


1
General Requirements for a BSL-3/4 Laboratory
  • Mircea Panait, Ovidiu Ciungradi, Adrian Onu,
    Dorel Lucian Radu

2
Classification of infective microorganisms by
risk group
  • Risk group 1 (no or very low individual and
    community risk)
  • A microorganism that is unlikely to cause human
    or animal disease.
  • Risk group 2 (moderate individual risk, low
    community risk)
  • A pathogen that can cause human or animal disease
    but is unlikely to be a serious hazard to
    laboratory workers, the community, livestock or
    the environment.
  • Laboratory exposures may cause serious infection,
    but effective treatment and preventive measures
    are available and the risk of spread of infection
    is limited.
  • Risk group 3 (high individual risk, low community
    risk)
  • A pathogen that usually causes serious human or
    animal disease but does not ordinarily spread
    from one infected individual to another.
  • Effective treatment and preventive measures are
    available.
  • Risk group 4 (high individual and community risk)
  • A pathogen that usually causes serious human or
    animal disease and that can be readily
    transmitted from one individual to another,
    directly or indirectly.
  • Effective treatment and preventive measures are
    not usually available.

3
National or regional classification of
microorganisms by risk group
  • Pathogenicity of the organism
  • Mode of transmission and host range of the
    organism
  • Existing levels of immunity in the local
    population
  • Density and movement of the host population
  • Presence of appropriate vectors
  • Standards of environmental hygiene
  • Local availability of effective preventive
    measures
  • Prophylaxis by immunization or administration of
    antisera
  • Sanitary measures (food and water hygiene)
  • Control of animal reservoirs or arthropod vectors
  • Local availability of effective treatment
  • Passive immunization
  • Post exposure vaccination
  • Use of antimicrobial, antiviral and
    chemotherapeutic agents

4
Relation of risk groups to biosafety levels,
practices and equipment
Risk Group Biosafety Level Laboratory Type Laboratory Practices Safety Equipment
1 Basic Biosafety Level 1 Basic teaching, research GMT None open bench work
2 Basic Biosafety Level 2 Primary health services diagnostic, research GMT plus protective clothing, biohazard sign Open bench plus BSC for potential aerosols
3 Containment Biosafety Level 3 Special diagnostic, research As Level 2 plus special clothing, controlled access, directional air flow BSC and/or other primary devices for all activities
4 Maximum containment Biosafety Level 4 Dangerous pathogen units As Level 3 plus airlock entry, shower exit, special waste disposal Class III BSC, or positive pressure suits in conjunction with Class II BSCs, double-ended autoclave (through the wall), filtered air
5
Summary of biosafety level requirements (1)
Biosafety level Biosafety level Biosafety level Biosafety level
1 2 3 4
Isolation of laboratory No No Desirable Yes
Room sealable for decontamination No No Yes Yes
Ventilation
inward air flow No Desirable Yes Yes
mechanical via building system No Desirable Yes No
mechanical, independent No Desirable Yes Yes
HEPA filtered air exhaust No No Desirable Yes
Double-door entry No No Yes Yes
Airlock No No No Yes
Airlock with shower No No No Yes
Anteroom No No Yes No
Anteroom with shower No No Desirable No
Effluent treatment No No Desirable Yes
6
Summary of biosafety level requirements (2)
Biosafety level Biosafety level Biosafety level Biosafety level
1 2 3 4
Autoclave
on site Yes Yes Yes Yes
in laboratory room No No Desirable Yes
double-ended No No Desirable Yes
Biological safety cabinets
Class I No Optional Yes No
Class II No Desirable Yes Yes, in conjunction with suit laboratories
Class III No No Desirable Yes, in conjunction with cabinet laboratories
7
BSL-4 project
  • BSL-4 project or facility can operate correctly
    and in safe condition if we have
  • A good design, engineering, construction and
    validation of the installation.
  • A trained personnel and good procedure system.
  • A good maintenance team which ensure the well
    state of the installation.

8
General considerations regarding BSL-4 laboratory
from the outside
  • BSL-4 design features include the following
  • All seams, joints and doors are sealed to make
    the building airtight. You can not open a window.
    Air does not flow in or out under the doors.
  • Air is pumped in and out of the building through
    a filtration system that catches the tiniest
    microscopic particles, including bacteria and
    viruses.
  • All air ducts are welded stainless steel and
    tested to be airtight.
  • Inside many BSL-4 facilities, laboratories are
    surrounded by buffer corridors that help protect
    the labs in the event of bombing attack from
    outside.
  • Features such airlocks, fumigation chambers,
    disinfectant dunk tanks and waste water
    treatment systems ensure that absolutely
    everything that leaves a BSL-4 laboratory is
    decontaminated.

9
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10
  1. A security checkpoint at the entry to the site
  2. A secured perimeter around the building
  3. A buffer between the building and parking areas,
    drop-off zones
  4. On-site 24-hour surveillance
  5. An additional vehicle checkpoint for lab
    employees, visitors
  6. A secured entryway, including security guards,
    surveillance cameras, an intercom system and card
    access readers
  7. A delivery vehicle inspection area
  8. The building also contains numerous safety and
    security measures throughout

11
General considerations regarding BSL-4 laboratory
interior security
  • Once pass outside security, BSL-4 lab workers
    must pass an interior security station
  • Security measures will include combinations of
    the following
  • Extensive background checks prior to employment
    for everyone who works in the building
  • Guards who check everyones identification and
    credentials
  • Special identification cards that are scanned to
    provide an electronic record of who goes in and
    out, and when
  • Identifications devices such as retinal or
    fingerprint scanners

12
Scouring the air HEPA filter and filtration
inspection verification
13
Changing room
14
Inside the lab
  • Entries and exits have double-door airlocks
  • Work surfaces are regularly decontaminated
  • Researchers are vaccinated against the pathogen
    they are studying
  • All solid and liquid waste is decontaminated by
    heat sterilization, gaseous sterilization or
    liquid disinfectant

15
Biocontainment Suits and Biosafety Cabinets
  • The airtight, pressurized suits have dedicated
    life support systems that include air
    compressors, alarms and emergency backup air
    tanks and a HEPA air filtration system
  • Work stations called biosafety cabinets serve as
    additional barriers
  • Different type of biosafety cabinet can be used
    (Class II or III)

16
Decontaminating Shower
17
Community and Environment
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