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CHAPTER%2018:%20%20THE%20MILITARY,%20WAR,%20AND%20TERRORISM

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Title: CHAPTER 18: THE MILITARY, WAR, AND TERRORISM Author: eparkins Last modified by: janordine Created Date: 1/20/2009 5:53:27 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER%2018:%20%20THE%20MILITARY,%20WAR,%20AND%20TERRORISM


1
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2
TERRORISM
  • Terrorismthe planned threat or use of violence,
    often against the civilian population, to achieve
    political or social ends, to intimidate
    opponents, or to publicize grievances.
  • Terrorist is a pejorative term with the
    interpretation differing according to side in the
    conflict.
  • Soft targets are civilians and other undefended
    groups.

3
Types of Terrorism
  • Domestic terrorism
  • involves violent armed attacks against the
    people of one's own country.
  • Domestic terrorists usually disagree with
    mainstream values.
  • Terrorists are intolerant, rely on moral
    absolutes and broad conclusions.

4
Types of Terrorism
  • International terrorism refers to
    politically-motivated violent armed attacks
    against people in another country.
  • Reasons for terrorism
  • Ideologicalseeing Western nations as
    economically exploiting
  • Practicalbelieving that terrorism works
  • Tacticalterrorists communicate while living in
    various places
  • Historicalterrorism traditionally seen as
    effective

5
Types of Terrorism
  • State-sponsored terrorism is a government's use
    of violence against its own people or in support
    of international violence.
  • Varies from death squads to providing safe havens
  • Cyberterrorism is any premeditated, politically
    motivated attack against computer and information
    systems
  • Includes computer worms and viruses

6
How Common is Terrorism?
  • Terrorism has a long history, extending back to
    biblical times.
  • The State Department has identified 44 active
    foreign terrorist organizations.
  • Terrorist groups operate in at least 60
    countries.
  • The number of terrorist attacks were highest in
    the 1980s.

7
Terrorist Strategies
  • Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) involve
    nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons.
  • Nuclear terrorism refers to weapons powered by
    atomic processes.
  • Nuclear proliferation refers to the ability of
    more nations to develop nuclear weapons.

8
Terrorist Strategies
  • Nuclear bombs can create massive destruction.
  • The components can stay active for thousands of
    years.
  • Nuclear arsenals are vulnerable to saboteurs,
    smugglers, and terrorists.

9
Terrorist Strategies
  • Biological terrorism
  • the intentional release
  • of potentially lethal viruses or bacteria into
    the air, food, or water supply.
  • The CDC has identified 36 biological agents that
    could threaten a population.
  • Contamination is fairly easy to accomplish.

10
Terrorist Strategies
  • Chemical terrorism refers to using manufactured
    gases or liquids that are highly toxic, can enter
    the body through the lungs or skin, and cause
    death within hours.
  • Chemical weapons are easier to make and deploy
    than germ warfare.
  • Many American facilities already use hazardous
    chemicals.

11
Causes of Terrorism
  • Economic reasonsPoverty increases the likelihood
    of terrorism, but the world's poorest countries
    have little terrorism.
  • Political reasons
  • Countries with a very high
  • or very low degree of
  • political rights experience
  • much lower risks of terrorism
  • than countries in the middle.

12
Causes of Terrorism
  • Religious reasonsSome terrorists argue that they
    are fighting for religious freedom.
  • Social, cultural, and personal reasonsThose who
    feel oppressed, desperate, or cheated and have no
    other way of fighting may resort to terrorism.

13
Conflict Perspective
  • Conflict theorists emphasize
  • negative characteristics and consequences.
  • War and terrorism
  • Create social and economic
  • costs
  • Violate human rights and civil
  • liberties
  • Benefit the power elite
  • Divide a population
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