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Title: British%20soldier%20eating%20his%20dinner%20in%20the%20trenches%20during%20World%20War%20I.


1
World War I, 19141920
World War I breaks out in Europe, the United
States gets involved in the war, and President
Wilson attempts to shape the peace.
British soldier eating his dinner in the trenches
during World War I.
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2
World War I, 19141920
SECTION 1
War Breaks Out in Europe
SECTION 2
America Joins the Fight
SECTION 3
Life on the Home Front
SECTION 4
The Legacy of World War I
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3
After World War I breaks out, the United States
eventually joins the Allied side.
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4
War Breaks Out in Europe
Causes of World War I
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
starts World War I
War has many underlying causes - imperialism
- nationalism - militarismbelief that nations
need a large military force - alliances
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5
Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (right)
seized by police after fatally shooting Austrian
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife on June 28,
1914.
6
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
7
continued Causes of World War I
European nations are divided into two opposing
alliances - Central PowersAustria-Hungary,
Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria - AlliesSerb
ia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, 7
other countries
Interactive
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8
Stalemate in the Trenches
German army invades Belgium, advances into
France (1914)
French, British troops stop German advance, 1st
Battle of the Marne
Fight for 3 years in trenches stretches across
France, neither side wins
Trench warfaretroops fight in trenches, use
artillery, machine guns
Area between opposing trenches called
no mans land
Battle of Somme, 1.2 million casualties, Allies
gain about 7 miles
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9
Soldiers in trenches.
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Note on the chart how each of the following
causes led to World War I
Europeans wanted to prove the superiority of
their nations also, certain ethnic groups were
willing to fight to form their own separate
nations.
Europeans had built up their military forces
before the war.
Conflicts between two nations drew their allies
into a larger war.
European nations competed for colonies. Germany
resented having fewer colonies than other nations
and wanted to gain more.
touched off war by giving Austria-Hungary a
reason to fight Serbia.
19
A War of New Technology
New technology raises death toll
Tanks, British invention, smashes barbed wire,
crosses trenches
Machine guns fire 600 bullets a minute, poison
gas burns, blinds
WWI 1st major conflict that uses fighter
airplanes
U-boatssubmarines used by Germans to block
trade
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Tanks
  • British Invention
  • Crossed trenches
  • Reason combat machine guns
  • 1st used at the Battle of the Somme

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Airplanes
  • 1st used in combat during WWI
  • Mainly observation
  • Some air to air combat
  • Dropped bombs late in the war but had little
    impact

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German U-boat (1917).
37
Americas Path to War
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announces policy
of neutrality
neutralityrefusing to take sides in a war
Britain sets up naval blockade of German ports
U-boat sinks British passenger ship Lusitania,
kills 1,198 total, 128 Americans
Wilson demands that Germany stop unrestricted
submarine warfare
Germany at first agrees, Wilson wins reelection
Germany resumes submarine warfare, January 1917
Continued . . .
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New York Times headline about the German sinking
of the British ocean liner Lusitania on May 7,
1915.
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43
continued Americas Path to War
British intercept Zimmermann telegram - sent
by German foreign minister Arthur
Zimmermann - proposes that Mexico join the
Germans - Germany will help Mexico get back
lost territories in U.S.
U.S. furious about telegram, U-boats sink
3 U.S. ships
President Wilson asks for declaration of war,
Congress votes for war
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44
Describe the new style ofwarfare and the new
weapons that made World War I different from
earlier wars.
Tanks smashed obstacles and protected soldiers
inside machine guns fired 600 bullets a minute
poison gas burned and blinded soldiers fighter
planes shot from the air submarines sank ships.
Soldiers fought from protected ditches, suffered
many casualties, and gained little ground.
45
Revolution in Russia
Russian army is outfought by smaller German
army (1915)
Food shortages, inflation lead to strikes by
angry Russian workers
Czar Nicholas II of Russia steps down (1917)
Communists led by Vladimir Lenin overthrow
temporary government
Lenin makes peace with Germany (1918)
German troops turn from Russia to the Western
front
Communist revolutionaries unfurl a Red Flag in
Moscow (1918).
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46
Russian Revolution
  • Bolsheviks (part of the Communist Party) take
    control
  • Vladimir Lenin-- Leader
  • Did not support the war

47
Vladimir Lenin
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49
Treaty of Brest- Litovsk
  • Russians made peace with the Central Powers and
    withdrew from war

50
Make a time line showing four events that led the
United States to declare war on Germany. Start
with May 1915.
51
U.S. forces help the Allies win World War I.
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52
America Joins the Fight
Raising an Army and a Navy
Congress passes Selective Service Act May
1917 - males, ages 21 to 30, sign up for
military service - by 1918, 3 million men are
drafted
Serve under General John J. Pershing as
American Expeditionary Force
50,000 U.S. women serve, mostly nurses, some do
other work
400,000 African Americans serve, face
discrimination
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53
AEF
  • American Expeditionary Force (U.S. Troops)
  • Led by John J. Pershing
  • Doughboys

54

55
Women welding bomb casings in an American
munitions factory (about 1917).
56
American Ships Make a Difference
Convoy systemheavy guard of destroyers escort
merchant ships
Reduces loss rate of U.S. supply ships from
German U-boat attacks
North Sea minefield prevents U-boat access to
North Atlantic
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59
Answer the following questions aboutthe American
experience in World War I.
It passed the Selective Service Act and drafted 3
million men between 21 and 30.
About 50,000 women served as Red Cross workers,
clerical workers, nurses, interpreters,
switchboard operators, entertainers, and
ambulance drivers. About 400,000 African
Americans served, half of them in France. Two
African-American combat divisions were created.
They suggested the convoy system to protect
merchant ships and suggested putting mines in the
North Sea to keep U-boats out of the North
Atlantic.
60
American Troops Enter the War
About 14,000 U.S. troops arrive in
France (June 1917)
Germans launch offensive, smash through French
lines (March 1918)
One million U.S. troops arrive ready for combat
Take Cantigny from Germans, help French troops
stop German advance
Defeat Germans at Belleau Wood
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61
Failed German Offensive
  • Chateau- Thierry
  • Belleau Wood
  • Reims
  • American aid greatly influenced Allied success

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Pushing the Germans Back
Second Battle of the Marne, turning point,
Allies force Germans back
Meuse-Argonne offensive, final battle of
war - leaves 26,000 Americans dead - Germans
retreat
Interactive
U.S. soldier Alvin York kills 25, captures 132
German soldiers
U.S. pilot Eddie Rickenbacker shoots down 26
enemy planes
4 African-American combat units receive
recognition for battle valor
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Argonne Offensive
66
Eddie Rickenbacker
67
Answer the following questions aboutthe American
experience in World War I.
They helped beat back German advances in France.
Alvin York, Eddie Rickenbacker, and four
African-American regimentsthe 369th, 370th,
371st, and 372nd
68
Germany Stops Fighting
Germanys navy mutinies, its allies drop out,
the Kaiser steps down
Germany agrees to armisticean end to fighting
(November 11, 1918)
8.5 million soldiers die in war, 21 million are
wounded
Millions of civilians die from starvation and
disease during the war
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70
Answer the following questions aboutthe American
experience in World War I.
The Germans stopped fighting, their allies
dropped out, the Kaiser stepped down, and they
agreed to an armistice in November 1918.
About 8.5 million soldiers died and about 21
million were wounded. Millions of civilians also
died from starvation and disease.
71
The war requires sacrifice for Americans at home
and changes life in other ways.
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72
Life on the Home Front
Mobilizing for War
Americans buy war bonds, pay for two-thirds of
war costs
War bondslow interest loans by civilians to
government
Patriotic citizens limit food intake, save gas,
have scrap drives
Government limits civilian use of steel, other
metals
Movie star Douglas Fairbanks selling war bonds
(Liberty Loans) during the third drive at the
Sub-Treasury Building (about 1914).
Continued . . .
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73
continued Mobilizing for War
President Wilson sets up War Industries
Board - buys, distributes war materials, sets
production goals, sets prices
Committee on Public Information produces war
propaganda
Propagandaopinions that influence the actions
of others
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75
Intolerance and Suspicion
Patriotic propaganda wins war support, fuels
prejudice
Espionage Act (1917), Sedition Act
(1918), laws that - set heavy fines, prison
terms for doing antiwar activities - make it
illegal to criticize war
World War I propaganda poster showing a German
soldier with bloody bayonet and fingers (1918),
Frederick Strothmann.
Continued . . .
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76
continued Intolerance and Suspicion
Schenk v. United Statesupholds Espionage Act
(1919)
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. argues
that - free speech can be limited especially
during wartime
Oliver Wendell Holmes, associate justice of the
U.S. Supreme Court.
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77
Answer the questions about lifefor American
civilians during World War I.
It convinced civilians to conserve food by
eating less and planting victory gardens. It also
convinced civilians to collect metal and other
needed materials.
It borrowed money by selling war bonds to
civilians.
It created the Committee on Public Information,
which produced propaganda that persuaded people
to support the war.
It passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts, which
set fines and prison terms for antiwar activities.
78
Schenck v. United States
79
New Jobs and the Great Migration
Northern factories hire workers they had once
rejected
Many African Americans move North, jobs, better
lifeGreat Migration
Mexican revolution causes many Mexicans to flee
to American Southwest
Wartime labor shortage makes new jobs available
for women
Womens contributions during war help them win
the vote
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81
The Flu Epidemic of 1918
Flu epidemic is spread by soldiers around
the world (1918)
Kills more than 20 million people worldwide,
takes 500,000 U.S. lives
In the army, more than one-quarter of soldiers
catch the disease
The New York Times issue of October 24, 1918,
reporting on the fight against influenza.
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82
Note the wars economic effects on African
Americans, Mexicans, and women. Below the chart,
briefly state what was similar about their
experiences.
replaced male workers in factory jobs also
took other jobs they had not held before, such as
streetcar conductors and elevator operators
left Mexico to take farm jobs in the
American Southwest and factory jobs in Northern
cities.
about 500,000 left the South to take factory jobs
in Northern cities
All three groups found new jobs open to them.
83
After the war, Americans are divided over foreign
policy and domestic issues.
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84
The Legacy of World War I
Wilsons Fourteen Points
President Wilsons Fourteen Points, goals for
peace - smaller military forces - end to
secret treaties - freedom of the seas - free
trade - change in national boundaries - organiza
tion of a League of Nations
League of Nationsinternational group, settle
conflicts by negotiation
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85
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty ending World War ITreaty of
Versailles - forces Germany to accept full
blame for war - strips Germany of its colonies,
most of its armed forces - burdens Germany
with 33 billion in reparations
Reparationsmoney defeated nation pays for war
destruction
Continued . . .
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continued Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles - divides up
Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire - creates
Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, recognizes Polands
independence - creates a League of Nations
Republican-run U.S. Senate against treaty,
League
Wilson campaigns for treaty, U.S. does not
ratify treaty, joins League
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88
The Big Four
89
Henry Cabot Lodge
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Note what President Wilson proposed in his
Fourteen Points and what European
nationsdemanded in the Treaty of Versailles.
smaller military forces, an end to secret
treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade,
changes in national boundaries, a League of
Nations to settle disputes peacefully
Germany stripped of its colonies and armed
forces, Germany forced to pay 33 billion in
reparations, boundary changes that broke up
empires, League of Nations
Both plans called for boundary changes and a
League of Nations.
93
If you had been a U.S. senator in 1919, would you
have voted for or against the Treaty of
Versailles and the League of Nations?
94
Strikes and the Red Scare
Shortly after war, U.S. has several labor
strikes
Strikes spark fear of Communist revolution in
the U.S.Red Scare
Palmer raidsU.S. agents arrest at least 6,000
suspected radicals
Anarchists Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti
arrested for killing 2 men
Sacco, Vanzetti claim innocence, found guilty,
executed
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95
Bartolomeo Vanzetti (left) and Nicola Sacco
arriving at court in Massachusetts, where they
received death sentence for murdering two men in
a robbery.
96
Racial Tensions Increase
Great Migration brings half million African
Americans, Northern cities
Whites, blacks compete for jobs, cause race
riot in East St. Louis
African-American soldiers returning from war
face discrimination
Black resentment about unfair conditions, race
riots in 25 cities (1919)
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97
Longing for Normalcy
Americans worn out by strikes, riots, Red
Scare, World War I
Republican presidential candidate is Warren G.
Harding
Promises a return to normalcy, wins a landslide
victory
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98
Briefly note how each set of events harmed the
country.
terrified people and led to the Palmer raids,
arrests which violated the civil rights of
Thousands stirred up hatred of foreigners
broke out in 25 cities during the summer of 1919
and left many dead
paralyzed cities.
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