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The Vocabulary of Vocabulary

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The Vocabulary of Vocabulary Vocabulary Workshop Levels B & C definition A statement of a word s meaning; an authoritative statement of meaning found in a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Vocabulary of Vocabulary


1
The Vocabulary of Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary Workshop
  • Levels B C

2
definition
  • A statement of a words meaning an authoritative
    statement of meaning found in a dictionary

3
literal
  • The simplest, most obvious meaning of a word, not
    used in any symbolic or figurative manner the
    meaning that is actually meant when using a
    particular word.
  • I suggest you wear a sweater because it is
    rather cool inside the theater.
  • The literal meaning of cool in this context is
    related to temperature its dictionary
    definition.

4
figurative
  • Creative uses of language that is symbolic and
    deals with imagery, not to be taken literally
    language based on figures of speech
  • Wow, that vintage Corvette is so cool!
  • In this context, cool has nothing to do with the
    cars temperature. Here the meaning of cool goes
    beyond the dictionary definition, instead taking
    its meaning from popular culture. The use of
    cool here is figurative.

5
denotation
  • The actual dictionary definition of a word, with
    no feeling or emotion attached to it the literal
    meaning of the word. Consider
  • home
  • house
  • residence
  • dwelling
  • By definition, each word names a place where a
    person or a family might live. Technically, all
    share the same denotation. But.

6
connotation
  • The emotional meaning or feelings associated with
    a word, not listed as a part of its dictionary
    definition. Consider feelings associated with
  • home warmth, security, stability
  • house a structure a generic sort of building
    easily pictured in ones mind
  • residence - an anonymous place where someone
    resides
  • dwelling a primitive shelter
  • These are feelings associated with the words,
    meanings attached to them beyond their dictionary
    definitions.

7
Please consider
  • If the following pairs of words are technically
    synonyms, why might you prefer being called one
    as opposed to the other?
  • short/petite
  • pretty/handsome
  • scrawny/slender

8
context
  • The words that surround a particular word or
    passage that gives clues to its meaning
  • I suggest you wear a sweater because it is
    rather cool inside the theater.
  • The words wear a sweater are clues to the words
    meaning in this context. The need to wear a
    sweater points to cool being used to describe
    temperature.

9
synonym
  • A word that has the same or similar meaning as
    another word
  • tired/weary
  • short/petite
  • jealous/envious
  • merry/jovial
  • But keep in mind, there really is no such thing
    as a perfect pair of synonyms. Why not?

10
antonym
  • A word that has the opposite meaning as another
    word
  • hot/cold
  • sweet/sour
  • easy/difficult
  • friendly/aloof
  • peaceful/agitated

11
Homo- -nym, -phone, -graph
  • Its all in the WORD ATTACK!!!
  • NAME
  • SAME SOUND
  • SOMETHING WRITTEN

12
homonym
  • Words that have multiple meanings
  • Leon got into a jam with the police after
    shoplifting a jar of boysenberry jam from
    Albertsons.
  • First usage of jam trouble
  • Second usage of jam fruit spread
  • WORD ATTACK!!!
  • homo- means same
  • -nym- means name

13
homophone
  • Words that have the same pronunciation but
    different meanings and spellings
  • peace/piece
  • witch/which
  • him/hymn
  • hair/hare
  • there/their/theyre
  • Ill/isle/aisle
  • WORD ATTACK!!!
  • homo- means same
  • -phone- means sound

14
homograph
  • Words that have the same spelling but different
    meanings and pronunciations
  • The tourists visiting Tunisia feared their
    shifty-looking guide would desert them in the
    middle of the desert.
  • Pronunciation of first usage d?-SERT
  • Pronunciation of second usage DE-sert
  • WORD ATTACK!!!
  • homo- means same
  • -graph- means something written

15
pronunciation
  • The actual sound utterance of a word the sounds
    the letters of a word produce this varies with
    region and dialect

16
Image source accentpros.com
17
dialect
  • A regional variety of speech this can vary in
    pronunciation, word choice, and word meaning.
    Consider
  • soda
  • pop
  • tonic
  • All are the same product, but it will depend upon
    where in the United States you live as to which
    label you use.

18
Image source emedia.leeward.hawaii.edu
19
Consider the Hail Mary
  • Hail Mary, full of grace,
  • The Lord is with you.
  • Blessed are you among women,
  • And blessed is the fruit of your womb, Jesus.
  • Holy Mary, Mother of God,
  • Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our
    death. Amen.
  • Which pair of words are homophones? That
    depends on the dialect you speak.

20
diction
  • A level of speech, described in terms of high,
    middle, and low it is adjusted according to
    audience and purpose of speech or writing.
    Consider
  • warrior/soldier/grunt
  • surgeon/doctor/sawbones
  • cuisine/food/grub

21
euphemism
  • A softer, gentler, less-offensive term for one
    considered harsh
  • Aunt Louise passed away.
  • Aunt Louise received her great reward.
  • Aunt Louise passed through the Pearly Gates.
  • Aunt Louise is pushing up daisies.
  • Anything but the straight-up Aunt Louise died.

22
jargon
  • Specialized language that has meaning to a
    particular group in a specific context. Are you
    a volleyball player? If so, then these words
    have a specific meaning to you
  • spike, kills, pancake, cobra, chicken wing
  • These words are part of the jargon of volleyball

23
Whats My Line?
  • half-pipe, grinds, ollie, varial
  • Im into skateboarding!
  • table top, banana, deadman, herkie
  • Im a cheerleader!
  • Life preservers, bossy in a bowl, looseners,
    shingle with a shimmy
  • Im a waitress in a diner!

24
analogy
  • A comparison between pairs of words that have
    similar relationships
  • Puppy (A) is to dog (B) as kitten (A) is to cat
    (B).
  • An A is a baby B. The relationship between the
    As and Bs is the same.
  • Happiness (A) is to misery (B) as confidence (A)
    is to doubt (B).
  • A and B are antonyms.
  • Suffering (A) is to pain (B) as uncertainty (A)
    is to anxiety (B).
  • Experiencing A causes a person to feel B.

25
etymology
  • The study of
  • the history
  • and origin
  • of words

26
root
  • A word part that carries the basic, core meaning
    some cannot stand alone without an affix
  • mort- comes from the Latin word for dead, death,
    deadly. Consider the meanings of the words
  • mortal
  • immortal
  • mortuary
  • mortify
  • How is your understand of the root mort- key to
    your understanding of the meanings of these words?

27
Lets talk about FIX!
  • When a person speaks of needing to FIX something,
    what is your first thought as to their meaning of
    the word FIX?
  • Most people think of FIX as meaning to repair.
  • But what is the origin of the word FIX?

28
The ETYMOLOGY of FIX
  • FIX began as fixus, a past participle of figere,
    meaning to fasten
  • FIX began as a word that meant to attach.
    Consider the name of a popular denture product
  • What does this product DO? Make a connection!

29
affix
  • Attachments such as prefixes and suffixes that
    carry meaning and build upon the meaning of the
    base/root word. Consider the word immortal
  • im- (Latin prefix meaning not)
  • -mort- (Latin root related to death)
  • -al (Latin suffix meaning that which)
  • immortal - that which cannot die

30
prefix
  • An affix attached to the front of a base/root.
    Some common prefixes
  • un-
  • re-
  • trans-
  • in-
  • de-
  • sub- and of course,
  • pre-

31
suffix
  • An affix that is attached to the end of a
    base/root. Some common suffixes
  • -ous
  • -ion
  • -ment
  • -ful
  • -ish
  • -able, -ible
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