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A Study of the Bandwidth Management Architecture over IEEE 802.16 WiMAX

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Title: A Study of the Bandwidth Management Architecture over IEEE 802.16 WiMAX


1
A Study of the Bandwidth Management Architecture
over IEEE 802.16 WiMAX
Student Sih-Han Chen ( ??? ) Advisor
Ho-Ting Wu ( ??? ) Date 2008.07.25
2
Outline
  • Background and Motivation
  • Proposed QoS System Architecture
  • Call Admission Control (CAC)
  • Pairing CAC
  • Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level
  • Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Conclusion and Future Work

3
Background
  • Fixed WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for
    Microwave Access)
  • Specified by IEEE 802.16 d
  • Wireless MAN Network
  • High transmission rate and coverage (75Mbps
    ,50km)
  • Support QoS
  • Cost saving and easy to deploy
  • Replace last mile (like ADSL)

4
MAC Common Part Sublayer
  • Defines multiple-access mechanism
  • Functions
  • Connection establishment
  • Connection maintenance
  • Call admission control
  • Bandwidth request
  • Bandwidth allocation
  • Packet scheduling

MAC Common Part Sublayer (MAC CPS)
5
IEEE 802.16 TDD Frame Structure
6
Service Classes
Feature Application
UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service) Real Time Constant Bit Rate T1/E1 VoIP
rtPS (Real-Time Polling Service) Real Time Variable Bite Rate MPEG video
nrtPS (Non-Real-Time Polling Service) Non-Real Time Variable Bite Rate FTP
BE (Best Effort) Non-Real Time No QoS guarantee HTTP Email
7
Dynamic Service Establishment
8
Motivation
  • IEEE 802.16 only defined the basic QoS signaling
    architecture.
  • The detail internal algorithm was left as the
    responsibility of implementers.
  • Call admission control
  • Bandwidth allocation
  • Packet scheduling
  • Pairing connection property
  • Uplink and downlink connections must coexist for
    many network application. (e.g. VoIP, FTP, P2P)

Undefined!!!
9
Outline
  • Background and Motivation
  • Proposed QoS System Architecture
  • Call Admission Control (CAC)
  • Pairing CAC
  • Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level
  • Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Conclusion and Future Work

10
Proposed QoS Architecture
SS
BS
Connection Request
Applications
Core Network
Connection Response
Uplink Data Traffic
Downlink Data Traffic
UGS
rtPS
nrtPS
BE
UGS
rtPS
nrtPS
BE
Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
Up Stream (Bandwidth Request)
Downlink Packet Scheduler
Uplink Packet Scheduler
Down Stream (DL/UL MAP)
11
Pairing Call Admission Control
Symbol Definition
Remaining Available System Bandwidth Resource
Reserved Bw for Connection, ( X DL or UL )
Peak Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X DL or UL)
Average Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X DL or UL)
Min Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X DL or UL)
12
Pairing Call Admission Control
Each Pair Connection Request
Y
Y
N
Y
N
N
Y
Y
N
N
Y
13
Range of Bandwidth Reservation
Service Type Upper Bound of Reserved Bandwidth Low Bound of Reserved Bandwidth
UGS
rtPS
nrtPS
BE
14
Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC Level
Symbol Definition
The current reserved bandwidth for connection i
The low bound of reserved bandwidth for connection i.
Amount of bandwidth are needed to be borrowed from system.
In system, How many bandwidth can be borrowed from rtPS, nrtPS and BE individually. (X rtPS , nrtPS or BE )
15
Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing
  • Calculate the bandwidth that are needed to be
    borrowed from system
  • In system, the bandwidth can be borrowed from
    rtPS, nrtPS and BE individually

16
Bandwidth Borrowing Flow Chart
Pair Connection Request from CAC Module
Success
Success
Success
Failure
Failure
Y
Failure
N
Success
Success
Success
Failure
Failure
Y
Failure
Y
N
Y
17
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System available Bw 0 Start to BB operations
at BS.
After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
18
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System available Bw 0 Start to BB
operations at BS.
  • Borrow from exiting BE connections.
  • 160 50 110 Kbps

After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 50 Kbps Kbps 0 Kbps
19
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System available Bw 0 Start to BB operations
at BS.
  • Borrow from exiting BE connections.
  • 160 50 110 Kbps

After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 50 Kbps Kbps 0 Kbps
(2) Borrow from exiting nrtPS connections.
110 50 60 Kbps
2 nrtPS 100 Kbps 100 Kbps 0 Kbps
20
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System available Bw 0 Start to BB operations
at BS.
  • Borrow from exiting BE connections.
  • 160 50 110 Kbps

After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 50 Kbps Kbps 0 Kbps
(2) Borrow from exiting nrtPS connections.
110 50 60 Kbps
(3) Borrow 45Kbps from CID3 Borrow 15Kbps
from CID4 60 150/(15050) 45
60 50/(15050) 15
2 nrtPS 100 Kbps 100 Kbps 0 Kbps
3 rtPS 255 Kbps 150 Kbps 105 Kbps
4 rtPS 185 Kbps 150 Kbps 35 Kbps
21
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System available Bw 0 Start to BB operations
at BS.
  • Borrow from exiting BE connections.
  • 160 50 110 Kbps

After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System Existing Connections in System
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 50 Kbps Kbps 0 Kbps
(2) Borrow from exiting nrtPS connections.
110 50 60 Kbps
(3) Borrow 45Kbps from CID3 Borrow 15Kbps
from CID4 60 150/(15050) 45
60 50/(15050) 15
2 nrtPS 100 Kbps 100 Kbps 0 Kbps
3 rtPS 255 Kbps 150 Kbps 105 Kbps
4 rtPS 185 Kbps 150 Kbps 35 Kbps
BB Success !!!
5 UGS 80 Kbps 80 Kbps 0 Kbps
6 UGS 80 Kbps 80 Kbps 0 Kbps
Accept the Pairing UGS Call
22
Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Stage One
  • Allocate the guaranteed reserved bandwidth for
    each existing connection at most.
  • Stage Two Allocate the remaining bandwidth
  • First, satisfy all rtPS connections that require
    more BW.
  • Final, allocate the remaining BW to nrtPS and BE
    evenly.

23
Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
24
Outline
  • Background and Motivation
  • Proposed QoS System Architecture
  • Call Admission Control (CAC)
  • Pairing CAC
  • Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level
  • Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Conclusion and Future Work

25
Simulation Environment
Simulation Environment Values
Number of BS 1
Number of SS 5 - 50
Traffic types generated by each SS UGS, rtPS, nrtPS, BE
Total Bandwidth 64 Mbps
Total Simulation Time 1000 Seconds
Frame Duration 10 ms
26
Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment
UGS rtPS nrtPS BE
Application VoIP Video Stream FTP Email
Average Data Rate 64 Kbps DL387Kbps UL38.7Kbps DL320Kbps UL32Kbps 192 Kbps
Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL464.4Kbps UL46.44Kbps DL384Kbps UL38.4Kbps 230.4Kbps
Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL309.6Kbps UL30.96Kbps DL256Kbps UL25.6Kbps 153.6Kbps
Low Bound of Reserved BW Max Rate Avg Rate Min Rate 0
Call Inter Arrival Time 15 Seconds Exponential 37.5 Seconds Exponential 30 Seconds Exponential 10 Seconds Exponential
Call Duration 120 seconds Exponential 240 seconds Exponential 60 seconds Exponential 20 seconds Exponential
Maximum Latency 20 ms 50 ms 100 ms 400 ms
Packet Size 160 Bytes Fixed-Size 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform
Packet Inter Arrival Time 20 ms Fixed Period DL 16.35 ms UL 163.5ms Fixed Period DL20 ms UL200ms Fixed Period 33ms Fixed Period
27
Simulation Experiment 1
  • Pairing vs NonPairing
  • Call Admission Control

28
Definition of NonPairing CACReject Call
29
Call Blocking Probability
Pairing vs NonPairing
I II
I II
rtPS
UGS
Pair
II
II
I
Pair
I
30
Call Blocking Probability
Pairing vs NonPairing
I II
I II
nrtPS
BE
Pair
I I
I I
Pair
I
I
31
Summary of Experiment 1
  • Pairing CAC is better than NonPairing CAC
  • Pairing CAC really achieves higher performance
    than NonPairing CAC on call blocking probability.
  • What cause NonPairing CAC low performance?
  • The reply connection request is always rejected
    leading to high blocking probability of
    NonPairing Type II .
  • So the following next experiment will base on
    Pairing CAC scheme to study Bandwidth Borrowing
    scheme continually.

32
Simulation Experiment 2
  • Based on Pairing Call Admission Control
  • Bandwidth Borrowing
  • vs
  • Non Bandwidth Borrowing

33
Call Blocking Probability
Using Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
Pairing CAC without BB
Pairing CAC with BB
rtPS
rtPS
34
Packet Drop Rate - Non BB vs BB
rtPS
nrtPS
BE
35
Conclusion
  • Proposed a novel QoS architecture over WiMAX,
    including
  • Pairing Call Admission Control (CAC)
  • Bandwidth Borrowing scheme on CAC level
  • Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Dynamic Downlink and Uplink bandwidth allocation.

36
Future work
  • Different traffic pattern (self-similar traffic)
  • Extent to IEEE 802.16e mobility issue (handover
    call, signal strength)
  • End to End QoS guarantee (ASN, CSN)
  • Heterogeneous Network (integrated with WiFi, 3G
    system, or EPON)

37
Q A
Thanks for Your Attention
38
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
( WiMAX )
Bandwidth
IEEE 802.15 IEEE 802.11 IEEE
802.16 3GPP
1 Gbps
802.15.3 High Speed Wireless PAN
Wi-Fi 802.11n
100 Mbps
WiMAX 802.16 (802.16-2004 802.16e)
Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g
10 Mbps
4G 3G 2.5G
1 Mbps
802.15.1 Bluetooth
lt1m 10m 100m Up
to 50Km Up to 80Km
PAN
LAN
MAN
WAN
PAN Personal area networks MAN Metropolitan
area networks LAN Local area networks Wide area
networks
39
IEEE 802.16 Operation Mode
40
IEEE 802.16 d
  • Specify area
  • MAC layer
  • PHY layer
  • Topology of Operation Mode
  • PMP (Point to Multiple Point)
  • Mesh
  • Multiplex
  • TDD
  • FDD

41
Bandwidth Request
  • SSs may request bandwidth in 3 ways
  • Contention-based bandwidth requests (Broadcast
    Polling or Multicast Group Pollng)
  • Contention-free bandwidth requests (Unicast
    Polling)
  • Piggyback a BW request message on a data packet

42
Bandwidth Allocation
  • BS grants/allocates bandwidth in one of two modes
  • Grant Per Subscriber Station (GPSS)
  • Grant Per Connection (GPC)
  • How much bandwidth to be granted based on -
  • Requested BW
  • QoS parameters
  • Available resources
  • Grants are realized through the UL-MAP

43
Service Flow
  • The central concept of the MAC protocol
  • A service flow is a unidirectional flow of
    packets that is provided a particular QoS.
  • SS and BS provide this QoS according to the QoS
    parameter set.
  • Existing in both uplink and downlink and may
    exist without being activated.
  • Must have a 32bit SFID, besides admitted and
    active status also have a 16-bit CID

44
Definition of Pairing and Non Pairing CAC
Pairing
Non Pairing
45
Definition of NonPairing CAC Accept Call
  • Round Trip Time
  • The duration time between admitting Uplink
    Connection Reqest and BS send out the Downlink
    Connection Request.

46
Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing (2)
  • If
  • the bandwidth borrowed from every exiting BE
    connection i is
  • Else, try to borrow bandwidth from nrtPS
  • after borrowing all bandwidth of

47
Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing (3)
  • If
  • the bandwidth borrowed from every exiting nrtPS
    connection i is
  • Else, try to borrow bandwidth from rtPS
  • after borrowing all bandwidth of

48
Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing (4)
  • If
  • the bandwidth borrowed from every exiting rtPS
    connection i is
  • Else, Bandwidth Borrowing Fail !
  • Reject the connection request.

49
Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm
Scheduling Service Mandatory Algorithm
UGS First In First Out (FIFO)
rtPS Earliest Deadline First (EDF)
nrtPS Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ)
BE Round Robin (RR)
50
System Model of Simulation Experiment
  • Note We assume that only SS can send
  • the connection request to BS actively

51
Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment
UGS rtPS nrtPS BE
Application VoIP Video Stream FTP Email
Average Data Rate 64 Kbps DL387Kbps UL38.7Kbps DL320Kbps UL32Kbps 192 Kbps
Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL464.4Kbps UL46.44Kbps DL384Kbps UL38.4Kbps 230.4Kbps
Minimum Reserve Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL309.6Kbps UL30.96Kbps DL256Kbps UL25.6Kbps 153.6Kbps
Accept Call Criteria Max Rate 64Kbps (MaxAvg)/2 DL425.7Kbps UL42.57Kbps (AvgMin)/2 DL288Kbps UL28.8Kbps Min / 2 76.8Kbps
Low Bound of Guarantee Bw Max Rate Avg Rate Min Rate 0
Call Inter Arrival Time 15 Seconds Exponential 37.5 Seconds Exponential 30 Seconds Exponential 10 Seconds Exponential
Call Duration 120 seconds Exponential 240 seconds Exponential 60 seconds Exponential 20 seconds Exponential
52
Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment
UGS rtPS nrtPS BE
Maximum Latency 20 ms 50 ms 100 ms 400 ms
Schedule Scheme FIFO EDF WFQ RR
Packet Size 160 Bytes Fixed-Size 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform
Packet Fragment 80 Bytes 240 Bytes 120 Bytes 120 Bytes
Packet Inter Arrival Time 20 ms Fixed Period DL 16.35 ms UL 163.5ms Fixed Period DL20 ms UL200ms Fixed Period 33ms Fixed Period
Reserve Bw Per frame (Non Bandwidth Borrowing Mode) 80 Bytes DL532.125 B UL53.2125 B DL360 B UL36 B 96 Bytes
53
Performance Metric
  • Call Blocking Probability
  • Packet Drop Rate

54
Definition of Pairing CAC
  • Accepted
  • Reject

55
Definition of NonPairing CAC Reject Call
56
Definition of NonPairing CAC
  • Default RTT of DL connection request
  • 0.5 seconds
  • Accepted
  • First Type of Connection Fail
  • Second Type of Connection Fail

57
Where is the issue ?Call Blocking Probability -
Pairing and NonPairing
Non Pairing CAC without BB
Pairing CAC without BB
58
Call Blocking Probability
Non BB vs BB
rtPS
UGS
59
Call Blocking Probability
Non BB vs BB
nrtPS
BE
60
Outline
  • Introduction of IEEE802.16 and QoS
  • Proposed QoS System Architecture
  • Call Admission Control (CAC)
  • Pairing CAC
  • Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level
  • Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Conclusion and Future Work

61
Example of Bandwidth Borrowing (BB)
System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 100 Kbps Kbps 50 Kbps
2 nrtPS 150 Kbps 100 Kbps 50 Kbps
3 rtPS 300 Kbps 150 Kbps 150 Kbps
4 rtPS 200 Kbps 150 Kbps 50 Kbps
BS
SS
Pairing UGS DSA Total require 160Kbps(80x2)
Now System avaible Bw 0 Start to BB operations
at BS.
  • Borrow from exiting BE connections.
  • 160 50 110 Kbps

After Bandwidth Borrowing Operation
System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0 System available Bw 0
CID Type Reserved BW Low Bound of Reserved Bw Credit
1 BE 50 Kbps Kbps 0 Kbps
(2) Borrow from exiting nrtPS connections.
110 50 60 Kbps
(3) Borrow 45Kbps from CID3 Borrow 15Kbps
from CID4 60 150/(15050) 45
60 50/(15050) 15
2 nrtPS 100 Kbps 100 Kbps 0 Kbps
3 rtPS 255 Kbps 150 Kbps 105 Kbps
4 rtPS 185 Kbps 150 Kbps 35 Kbps
BB Success !!!
5 UGS 80 Kbps 80 Kbps 0 Kbps
6 UGS 80 Kbps 80 Kbps 0 Kbps
Accept the Pairing UGS Call
62
Range of Bandwidth Reservation
Rsv-UGS
Rsv-rtPS
Rsv-BE
Rsv-nrtPS
(AverageMin) /2
(PeakAverage) /2
Min/2
Peak Rate
0
Average Rate
Min Rate
Rsv-nrtPS Low Bound
Rsv-BE Low Bound
Rsv-rtPS Low Bound
63
Call Blocking Probability
Pairing CAC vs NonPairing
64
NonPairing Call Blocking Probability (UGS)

Type I vs Type II
65
NonPairing Call Blocking Probability (rtPS)

Type I vs Type II
66
NonPairing Call Blocking Probability (nrtPS)

Type I vs Type II
67
NonPairing Call Blocking Probability (BE)

Type I vs Type II
68
Bandwidth Borrowing Schemes
Service Class of Connection Request Bandwidth Borrowing from the exiting connections in system Bandwidth Borrowing from the exiting connections in system Bandwidth Borrowing from the exiting connections in system
Service Class of Connection Request Scheme_1 Scheme_2 Scheme_3
UGS BE ? nrtPS BE ? nrtPS ? rtPS BE ? nrtPS
rtPS BE ? nrtPS BE ? nrtPS ? rtPS BE ? nrtPS
nrtPS N/A N/A BE ? nrtPS
BE N/A N/A N/A
69
Pairing Call Blocking Probability (UGS)

BB vs NonBB
70
Pairing Call Blocking Probability (rtPS)

BB vs NonBB
71
Pairing Call Blocking Probability (nrtPS)

BB vs NonBB
72
Pairing Call Blocking Probability (BE)
BB
vs NonBB
73
Packet Drop Rate (rtPS)
BB vs NonBB
74
Packet Drop Rate (nrtPS)
BB vs NonBB
75
Packet Drop Rate (BE)
BB vs NonBB
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