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Kyle R. Fisk, DVM

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HERD HEALTH BASICS KYLE R. FISK, DVM Antibiotic resistance on the climb very fast Data from 2011 Prevent with nutrition, management and proper vaccination * 52.3 avg ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kyle R. Fisk, DVM


1
Herd Health Basics
  • Kyle R. Fisk, DVM

2
Controlled Breeding Season (lt 90 days)
  • First step to implement any management
  • Calf processing Vaccination/Castration at
    proper age!
  • Cow processing and reproductive culling
  • Concentration of labor
  • Nutritional adjustment to group requirements
  • Uniform/heavier weight and age of calf crop
  • Depends on marketing of calves, environment,
    forage/supplement availability, and place to put
    the bull(s)

3
Whats our biggest problem?
  • Bovine Respiratory Disease
  • 1.2 Billion/year cost to industry
  • 75 morbidity and 50-70 mortality in feed-yards

4
No more silver bullets
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • 82.7 bacteria resistant to at least one
    antibiotic
  • In 2009, just over 5 of bacteria were resistant
    to major 5 antibiotics (pan-resistant).
  • In 2011, more than 35 of bacteria were
    characterized as pan-resistant.
  • In 2012, KS diagnostic lab 55 pan-resistant and
    65 resistant to all but one antibiotic
  • Prevention is the only option
  • Entering a post antibiotic age?

5
SE Backgrounding data
  • Unknown Vaccination
  • Source Sale barn, mixed origin, comingled
  • Known Vaccine
  • Source single sourced country cattle, calves
    vaccinated on cow
  • Morbidity 32-72
  • Mortality 6-15
  • The lower the weaning weight the higher the pull
    rates
  • Morbidity 12-18
  • Mortality lt1-2
  • Pull rates correlate to feed ration transitions,
    handling, weather, heat stress, comingling, or
    pen to pen movements

6
Vaccination Incentives
  • Superior programs
  • Vaccine program since 1994
  • Improved health equates to increased weaning
    weights
  • Retained ownership
  • Talk to your market manager!

7
Vaccination Immunity
  • Stress
  • Handling, weaning, environmental, nutritional
  • Timing of vaccine
  • Vaccinating during stress period (i.e. weaning)
  • Killed vaccine not boostered properly
  • Not instantaneous!
  • Nutrition
  • Mineral plays large role in immune function and
    one of the first components lost in mineral
    deficient states
  • Normal response 85-95 if everything is done
    right
  • lt 60 if stressed or vaccines are handled
    improperly

8
Goals of Vaccination Program
  • The vaccine should stimulate an immune response
    similar to that of the real disease
  • That immune response should produce protection
    against clinical disease by raising the animals
    resistance above its disease challenge
  • This protection should last a year
  • The vaccine should be easy to use, cost effective
    and have minimal side effects

9
Vaccine Failure
  • Expired/incorrect vaccine
  • Not refrigerated/sunlight
  • Mixed too long or improperly (settled out)
  • Incorrect route of administration
  • Disinfectants used on needles/syringes
  • Timing relative to disease challenge too soon
  • Lack of booster of Killed vaccine
  • Stress and nutrition status of calf

10
Types of Vaccines
  • Modified Live Virus
  • Killed Virus
  • Safe for bred cows
  • No mixing required
  • Weaker and shorter immune response
  • Requires initial booster
  • Large volume dose
  • Adjuvant more reaction
  • 1 week once opened
  • Can cause abortion
  • Requires mixing
  • Stronger and longer acting immunity
  • Single dose effective
  • Smaller volume dose
  • 1 hour once mixed

11
Vaccination response
Immune Response
2nd dose
1st dose
Time
12
Managing Immunity
  • Decrease stressors
  • Weaning, commingling, feed changes,
    workings/handling, environmental
  • Provide adequate nutrition
  • Including water and mineral
  • Develop a comprehensive vaccination program
  • Stick to it
  • Decrease the disease challenge and improve
    immunity!

13
Response to Stress
Susceptibility
Level
Weaning
Time
14
Combined Mgmt. and Vaccine
Vaccination
Level
Weaning
Time
15
What Diseases
  • BRD
  • BVD, IBR, BRSV, PI3 bacterins
  • Clostridial (blackleg)
  • Pink eye
  • Lepto/Vibrio
  • Trich ?
  • Brucella

16
BRD
  • BVD, IBR, BRSV, PI3
  • All reduce calves immunity to bacterial infection
  • BVD and IBR commonly cause abortions
  • Mannhiemia heamolytica, Pasturella multocida,
    Histophilus somni
  • 75 morbidity and 50-70 mortality in feedyards
  • 1.2 Billion/year cost to industry

17
Clostridial
  • 9 serotypes
  • Chauvoei, Septicum, Sordelli, Novyi,
    Haemolyticum, Perfringens type C D, Tetani,
    Botulinum
  • Affect muscle, liver, intestines and nervous
    system
  • Live in environment and animals tissues
  • Cause disease with injury

18
Pink Eye
  • Moraxella bovis vs. Moraxella bovoculli
  • Vaccine combo with blackleg only have M. bovis
  • Can manufacture vaccine for your herd
  • Requires continual culturing to ensure effective
    vaccine
  • Can get costly
  • Management
  • UV radiation
  • Top dress fields
  • Limit dust
  • Fly control

19
Lepto/Vibrio/Trich
  • Leptospirosis - 5 serovars
  • Hardjo, Pomona, Canicola, Grippotyphosa,
    Icterohaemorrhagiae
  • In water and urine
  • Causes abortions, typically late term
  • Vaccines only effective 6 months
  • Vibriosis (Campylobacter foetus)
  • Venereal disease transmitted from bull
  • Causes first trimester abortions
  • Vaccinate pre-breeding
  • Trichomonasis (Tritrichomonas foetus)
  • Venereal disease from bull permanent carrier
  • Causes pyometra and early abortion
  • Cows will clear 90 days and re-breed late
    calving herd

20
Brucella
  • Given to heifers only between 4 and 12 months of
    age
  • Typically between weaning and first cycle (good
    time to check weight on replacements)
  • Get tattooed and USDA ear tag indicating
    vaccination
  • Causes late term abortions
  • Spread by wildlife and zoonotic to humans
  • USDA regulated attenuated live culture
  • Dont give concurrently with antibiotics
  • Veterinary administration

21
Weaning
22
Low Stress Weaning
  • Fence line 5-10 days
  • Clean fresh water (trickling over)
  • Free choice high quality grass hay
  • ½-1 BW high fiber, palatable feed
  • Helps if creep fed
  • Free choice mineral
  • Place nutrition on fence line
  • Quiet wean?
  • Required for some premiums

23
Deworming
24
Anthelmintic Resistance
  • Parasites of concern Ostertagia, Haemonchus,
    Cooperia, etc.
  • Diarrhea
  • Anorexia
  • Weight loss/poor growth
  • Rough hair growth
  • Anemia and bottle jaw
  • Lethargy/weakness
  • Immuno-suppression
  • Death

25
Dewormers 3 Classes
  • White wormers - oral
  • Safegaurd, Panacur, Synathic, Valbazen
  • Injectable pour-ons
  • Avermectins Ivermectin, Eprinex, Dectomax
  • Milbemycins Cydectin
  • Imidazothiazole - oral
  • Prohibit/Levamisole
  • Morantel

26
Pour-ons
  • Most common
  • NOT for fly control
  • Injectable known dosing
  • White wormers coming back
  • Largest problem is application !

27
slowing resistance
  • Small ruminants
  • Egg counts FAMACHA
  • Combination deworming
  • Injectable oral
  • Under-dosing and using too frequently of pour-ons
  • Greatly increases rate of resistance
  • Rotational grazing, stocking rate
  • Should we deworm all cattle?
  • Select classes BCS

28
Questions ?
  • Kyle R. Fisk, DVM
  • Fisk Veterinary Services, PL
  • www.fiskvet.net
  • kyler.fisk_at_gmail.com
  • (352) 266-9275
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