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Academic Intervention Plan: Writing


Academic Intervention Plan: Writing Jillian Hutzel, K.W., A.M., D.K. & S.P. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Academic Intervention Plan: Writing

Academic Intervention PlanWriting
  • Jillian Hutzel, K.W., A.M., D.K. S.P.

Writing Difficulties
  • Attention Problems (Cause)
  • Inattention, impulsivity
  • (Manifestations)
  • Difficulty beginning a written assignment
  • Inconsistent legibility
  • Careless errors
  • Poorly planned papers and reports
  • Mental fatigue
  • (WGBG Educational Foundation, 2002)

Writing Difficulties
  • Spatial Ordering Problem
  • Decreased awareness to arraignment of letters and
    words on a page
  • Poor use of lines on paper
  • Organizational problems
  • Misspelled words
  • (WGBG Educational Foundation, 2002)

Writing Difficulties
  • Sequential Ordering Problem
  • Difficulty putting letters, processes, or ideas
    in a consistent order
  • Lack of transitions
  • Poor letter formation
  • Poor narrative speaking
  • (WGBG Educational Foundation, 2002)

Writing Difficulties
  • Memory Problems
  • Poor Gsm, Glr, Gc
  • Inability to rapidly recall rules grammar,
  • Difficulties calling upon past social situations
    or general knowledge to write a comprehensive
  • Frequent grammar and spelling errors
  • (WGBG Educational Foundation, 2002)

Writing Difficulties
  • Language Issue (WGBG Educational Foundation,
  • ESL/ ELL
  • BICS
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
  • Difficulty
  • Proper use of vocabulary words
  • Word order
  • Word meaning
  • Writing about culturally unfamiliar topics
  • i.e. the famous colander

Writing Difficulties
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Poor pencil grip
  • Poor hand writing
  • Inability to stay within the line and margins
  • Muscle fatigue/ slow writing speed
  • (WGBG Educational Foundation, 2002)

  • Crystallized Intelligence (Gc)
  • Grammar (syntax)
  • Bland writing with limited descriptors
  • Verbose writing
  • Inappropriate word usage
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Fluid Reasoning (Gf)
  • Essay writing and generalizing concepts
  • Developing a theme
  • Comparing and contrasting ideas
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Auditory Processing (Ga)
  • Spelling
  • Note taking
  • Poor quality of writing
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
  • Accessing words to use during essay writing
  • Note taking
  • Persuasive writing comparing and contrasting
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Processing Speed (Gs)
  • Limited output due to time limits
  • Decreased motivation to write due to the lengthy
    amount of time taken to write
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Visual Processing (Gv)
  • Spelling sight words
  • Spatial problems
  • Words overhanging lines
  • No attention to margin
  • Inconsistent size, spacing, and positioning of
    letters on paper
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

  • Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
  • Note taking
  • Redundant writing
  • Spelling multisyllabic words
  • (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)

Intervention Techniques
  • Poor Muscle Tone
  • Slant Board for poor muscle strength
  • Grips for pencils
  • Hold a cotton ball with the pinky and ring
    finger in palm and then use only the thumb,
    pointer and middle finger to write
  • It helps correct the childs pencil grip.
  • Crouch and Jakubecy (2007)

Intervention Techniques
  • Gf (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)
  • Graphic organizer to arrange information in a
    visual format
  • Metacognitive strategies
  • Compare new concepts to previously learned
    concepts and ideas
  • Use analogies and metaphors when presenting new

Intervention Techniques
  • Gc (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)
  • Vocab building
  • Text talks (Utah Reading First Educators, 2005)
  • Text Talk is an approach to read alouds that is
    designed to enhance young children's ability to
    construct meaning from decontextualized language.
    These lessons provide educators with a resource
    to accomplish the complex and demanding task of
    developing children's literacy using read-alouds.
    The ultimate goal of a Text Talk lesson is
    twofold 1.) Getting children to talk about the
    text, considering ideas using decontextualized
    language to improve comprehension, and 2.) the
    acquisition of vocabulary
  • http//
  • Link provides a full example
  • Teach morphology
  • i.e. identify the root word

Intervention Techniques
  • Ga (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)
  • Provide guided notes
  • Clarification Time at the end of the lesson for
    student to ask questions for items he missed
  • Written instruction over oral instruction
  • Shortened instruction time with minimal
    background noise

Intervention Techniques
  • Glr (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)
  • Utilize lists to prompt recall
  • Expand vocab
  • Extended time
  • Prime student with background information before
    presenting a question for a writing task

Intervention Techniques
  • Gv (Flanagan Alfonso, 2011)
  • Highlight margins
  • Provide direct hand writing practice
  • Graph paper for letter alignment
  • Gsm
  • Highlight important information to include in the
  • Graphic organizers

Case Study Johnny
  • Johnny is a 5th grade student, in a co-teaching,
    collaborative setting, whom has always struggled
    with his writing. He has poor handwriting that
    often he cannot read and will often write very
    short responses to questions that require lengthy
  • His parents say that it is a constant struggle to
    get him to write at home and when it comes to
    writing an essay he will often put up a fight to
    the point that his parents will just write down
    what he says for the essay.
  • Johnny had an awkward pencil grip that was
    corrected with the cotton ball technique in the
    2nd grade. He has poor/awkward spacing between
    words and sentences. He sometimes still struggles
    with forming letters and is inconsistent with
    using proper capitalization. His sentences will
    also often go off of the lines and margins of his
    paper. His Math problems also tend to go all over
    his paper and he now has been doing his problems
    on graph paper inside of large boxes on the page.

  • Johnny became a Classified student in the 4th
    grade under OHI, due to his diagnosis of ADHD.
  • In the recent weeks Johnny has been seen by his
    psychologist and other professionals and after
    assessments, has also been diagnosed with
  • Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to
    write, primarily in terms of handwriting, but
    also in terms of coherence. Dysgraphia is a
    transcription disability, meaning that it is a
    writing disorder associated with impaired
    handwriting, orthographic coding, and finger
    sequencing (the movement of muscles required to
    write). It often overlaps with other learning
    disabilities such as Speech impairment, attention
    deficit disorder, or developmental coordination
  •, 2013

What to do?
  • Due to Johnnys recent diagnosis, his parents
    requested a return to committee to add it to his
    IEP, and possibly receive some related services,
    such as Physical Therapy.
  • The classroom teachers have spoken with the
    Physical Therapist and have began an Intervention
    Plan. It includes a number of techniques and a
    reward system that is being used within the
    classroom to begin to help John

Intervention Plan
  • According to Crouch and Jakubecy (2007) There
    are two different approaches to address
    dysgraphia. The first is using systematic
    techniques that improve functioning this is
    referred to as remedial treatment. Remedial
    treatments are those that seek to correct
    handwriting either through direct instruction of
    handwriting or a fine-motor program. The second
    strategy is using by-pass strategies, such as
    technology, to find a way around the hand writing
  • The classroom teachers are using two remedial
    techniques in the classroom. The first one is
    known as Drill and Practice.
  • Also using fine-motor exercises and techniques to
    help build the muscles to help him write.

Intervention Plan
  • Some dysgraphic students have great difficulty
    with spelling, especially if sequencing is a
    major issue for them. Additionally, many
    dysgraphic students experience dyslexia, a
    sequential processing problem that affects
    reading and spelling. These students need very
    specific remedial assistance in learning to spell

Intervention Plan
  • It is critical that they are able to represent
    unknown words using good phonetic equivalences.
    If they are able to spell logically and
    phonetically, they will be able to use a
    phonetically-based spell checker.

Intervention Plan
  • These handheld devices recognize words using
    phonetic logic rather than relying on the
    orthographic sequence, as do most spell checkers
    on a computer word processing program.

  • Eye halve a spelling chequer It came with my pea
    sea It plainly marques four my revue Miss steaks
    eye kin knot sea.Eye strike a key and type a word
    And weight four it two say Weather eye am wrong
    oar write It shows me strait a weigh.As soon as a
    mist ache is maid It nose bee fore two long And
    eye can put the error rite Its rare lea ever
    wrong.?Eye have run this poem threw it I am shore
    your pleased two no Its letter perfect awl the
    weigh My chequer tolled me sew.

Written Expression Helping students to improve
their writing performance is a complex and
challenging task because of the multiple skills
required for proficient writing, including
strategies for regulating the writing process,
text-production skills, and knowledge of writing
types (De La Paz Graham, 2002 Graham
Harris, 2002). In the past two decades,
research on the cognitive processes underlying
writing has led to a shift in writing instruction
from an emphasis on product (e.g., internal
dialoguing, developing a sense of audience, and
incorporating feedback from others.) As a result,
writing interventions increasingly target skills
related to process-oriented aspects of writing,
including planning, content generation, and
revising. (Gersten Baker, 2001).
Written Expression Intervention PLAN and
WRITE Poor writers, especially students with
learning disabilities, typically plan minimally
or not at all during the composition process (De
La Paz, 1999 De La Paz, Owen, Harris Graham,
2000) In PLAN and WRITE Self-Regulated
Strategy Development for Essay Writing, students
learn a strategy for planning and writing
expository essays that is embedded in a set of
self-regulatory procedures. Two mnemonics are
incorporated to remind students of the planning
steps that occur before and during the writing
process. The PLAN and WRITE strategy has been
validated as an effective intervention for middle
school students with and regular classrooms (De
La Paz Graham, 1997, 2002) and middle school
students with and without disabilities in
inclusive classrooms (De La Paz, 1999).
PLAN and WRITE Method Writing essays is a
frequent requirement in school curriculum and,
increasingly, on high-stake assessments. In this
intervention, students learn to plan and write
expository essays using the Self-Regulated
Strategy Development (SRSD) model of instruction.
Six instructional stages provide a framework for
strategy development and can be combined,
reordered, repeated, or modified, depending on
teacher preference and student needs. Purpose
To teach students a strategy for planning,
writing, and revising expository essays, as well
as a set of strategies for regulating their own
writing behavior. (Rathvon, 2008
  • Intervention Implementation for Written
  • Administer an essay prompt to a group of target
    students or the entire class.
  • Rate each essay on a holistic scale from 1 to 7
    based on the quality of ideas, development and
    organization, coherence, mechanics, and the
    quality of vocabulary as follows
  • 1unacceptable, 2poor, 3fair, 4average,
    5good, 6very good, 7outstanding

6 Stages to Success Stage 1. Overview of the
Purpose- explain to the student the purpose of
Intervention and how it will help their writing
needs Stage 2. Activating Background Knowledge-
Display a sample essay, identify intro, body and
conclusionIs there a decent Thesis Statement?
Identify Transition Words. Search for different
sentence types (ex. form function) and Look for
words they can improve on in the Essay. Stage 3.
Review of Students Initial Writing Abilities-
Explain rubrics or standards, Conduct student
conferences to discuss their current writing
abilities, Encourage student to identify 1 or 2
writing goals to address their current weakness
(s). Stages Continued ?
6 Stages to SuccessContinued Stage 4- Modeling
the Planning Strategy- Model the PLAN and Write
method by thinking aloud through the planning and
writing process, record and organize ideas, write
thesis statement and decide whether it will go at
the beginning or end of the essay, remind
students what each paragraph should include,
revise sentences and vocabulary in each
paragraph. Stage 5- Collaborative Practice-
Compose an essay on a class-wide basis using the
PLAN and Write strategy, divide students into
groups to beginning writing essays (help each
other for ideas), after students begin their
essays have a class discussion on different
strategies used, have students work together
again for revision. Stage 6- Independent
Practice- Explain the importance of their goals
and how to apply it to their writing skills,
beginning writing essay independently, conduct a
second set of student conferences to discuss
progression of their essay, have student submit
the finished product of their essay.
Evaluation Compare the number of functional
elements in two or three essays written by
the entire class before and after Implementation.
  • The Expository Planning Strategy Nine Steps to
  • Planning Strategy PLAN
  • Pay Attention to the Prompt
  • List the Main Ideas
  • Add Supporting Details
  • Number your Ideas
  • Keep Planning while Composing you Essay WRITE
  • Work from your plan to develop your thesis
  • Remember your goals
  • Include transition word for each paragraph
  • Try to use different kinds of sentences
  • Use exciting, interesting words in your essay!
  • (De La Paz, Owen, Harris, and Graham, 2000)

  • Crouch, A. L., Jakubecy, J. J. (2007).
    Dysgraphia How It Affects a Student's
    Performance and What Can Be Done about
    it. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 3(3),
    Retrieved from http//
  • De La Paz, S. (1999). Self-regulated strategy
    instruction in regular
  • education settings Improving outcomes for
    students with and without disabilities.
    Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14,
  • De La Paz, S., Graham, S. (1997). Strategy
    instruction in planning
  • Effects on the writing performance and behavior
    of students with learning difficulties.
    Exceptional Children, 63, 167-181.
  • De La Paz, S., Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly
    teaching strategies,
  • skills, and knowledge Writing instruction in
    the classroom. Journal of Educational
    Psychology, 94, 687-698.

Reference De La Paz, S., Owen, B., Harris, K.R.,
Graham, S. (2000). Riding Elvis motorcycle
Using self-regulated strategy development to
PLAN and WRITE for a state writing exam.
Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15,
101-109. Flanagan, D. Alfonso, V. (2011).
Essentials of specific learning disability
identification. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley Sons
Inc. Gersten, R., Baker, S. (2001). Teaching
expressive writing to students with learning
disabilities. Elementary School Journal, 101,
251-272. Graham, S., Harris, K.R. (2002). The
road less traveled Prevention and intervention
in written language. In K.G. Butler E.R.
Sillman (Eds.), Speaking, reading, and writing
in children with language learning disabilities
New paradigms in research and practice (pp.
199-217) Mahwah, NJ Erlbaum.
Reference Rathvon, N., (2008). Effective School
Interventions (2nd Ed.). New York, NY The
Guilford Press Utah Reading First Educators.
(2005). Text Talk Lessons. Retrieved from
http// awarchive?typefilei
tem28840 WGBG Educational Foundation. (2002).
Misunderstood minds Difficulty with writing.
Retrieved from http//
toodminds/ ml