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PSYC%202314%20Lifespan%20Development

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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 10 The Play Years: Psychosocial Development The Self and the Social World Erikson s Initiative vs. Guilt Child eagerly takes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC%202314%20Lifespan%20Development


1
PSYC 2314Lifespan Development
  • Chapter 10
  • The Play Years
  • Psychosocial Development

2
The Self and the Social World
  • Eriksons Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Child eagerly takes on new tasks and activities
    and feels guilty when his or her efforts result
    in failure or criticism.

3
The Only Child
  • Only children fare as well as or better than
    children with siblings.
  • Benefit intellectually, becoming more verbal,
    more creative, and more likely to graduate from
    college.

4
Emotional Development
  • Emotional regulation
  • Children learn to control their fear and anger in
    response to social expectations.
  • Phobias
  • The development of fears during the play years is
    common. This is particularly likely if the
    childs parents share these fears. During these
    years, the childs enhanced imagination
    contributes to an increase in nightmare.

5
Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior
  • Aggression begins with a negative self-concept
    and inadequate emotional regulation.
  • Instrumental aggression
  • Reactive aggression
  • Relational aggression
  • Bullying aggression

6
Video and Reality
  • Criticisms of video watching
  • Takes time from active and imaginative play
  • Sends faulty messages about nutrition
  • Provides sexist, racist, and ageist stereotypes
  • Undermines sympathy for emotional pain
  • Undercuts attributes, skills, and values that
    lead to prosocial activity.

7
Social Skills Through Play
  • Rough-and-tumble play
  • Physical play in which aggression is feigned,
    with the participants often exhibiting the play
    face.
  • Sociodramatic play
  • Children create their own imaginative story and
    act out various roles and themes.

8
Parenting
  • Four features that differentiate styles of
    parenting
  • Warmth
  • Discipline
  • Communication
  • Maturity

9
Parenting Styles
  • Authoritarian
  • Permissive
  • Authoritative

10
Punishment
  • To be effective, punishment should be more
    proactive than punitive.
  • Children who are physically punished may learn to
    be more aggressive.

11
Punishment
  • Instrumental aggression was not significantly
    affected by the type of punishment a child
    experienced at home, whereas bullying aggression
    was clearly associated with being violently
    punished.
  • Compared to children who were not spanked, those
    who were spanked were three times as likely to
    engage in reactive aggression.

12
Gender Role
  • Gender awareness in children
  • Children learn about gender very early. Most
    2-year-olds know whether they are boys or girls.
  • By age 4, children tend to criticize peers who
    choose toys that are regarded as gender
    inappropriate.
  • By age 6, their ideas of typical male and female
    behavior become full-blown stereotypes.
  • Awareness that sex is a fixed biological
    characteristic does not become solid until about
    age 8.

13
Theories of Gender Role Development
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Learning
  • Cognitive
  • Sociocultural
  • Epigenetic
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