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Sentence Structure: Sentence Types

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Title: Sentence Structure: Sentence Types


1
  • Sentence StructureSentence Types

2
Sentence Types
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound-Complex

3
Basic Elements of Every Sentence
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
4
Basic Elements
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
Mary
plays tennis.
5
Simple Sentence
6
Simple Sentence
  • A simple sentence has one subject and one
    predicate.

7
Simple Sentence
Observe how a simple sentence is constructed
We went to San Juan yesterday.
8
Simple Sentence
Pronoun
Verb
Prepositional phrase
We went to San Juan .
Simple subject
Complete predicate
9
SIMPLE SENTENCE
PREDICATE
SUBJECT
plays tennis.
Mary
one subject one predicate
10
Simple Sentence
play tennis.
Tom and Mary
Compound Subject

11
Simple Sentence
play tennis and swim.
Tom and Mary
Compound Subject Compound Predicate


12
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject
Tom and Mary play tennis.
13
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject
andcompound predicate
Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
14
Compound Sentence
15
Compound Sentence
  • A compound sentence has more than one part that
    can stand alone (independent clauses).
  • Independent clauses are connected by coordinating
    conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs or a semi-colon.

16
Compound Sentence
We went to San Juan, and
most of us danced all night.
17
Compound Sentence
Subject
Verb
Prepositional phrase
We went to San Juan,
Predicate
Coordinating Conjunction
and most of us danced all night .
Modifying phrase
Subject
Verb
18
Compound Sentence Use of Coordinating
Conjunctions
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
and
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
19
Compound Sentence
Tom
swims,
and
Mary
plays tennis.
20
COMPOUND SENTENCECOORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
21
COMPOUND SENTENCECOORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
Clause 1
Clause 2 Independent
Independent
22
COMPOUND SENTENCECOORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
Comma before and in compound
sentences!
23
COMPOUND SENTENCECONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE
24
COMPOUND SENTENCECONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
Bob is handsome moreover, he is rich.
Clause 1
Clause 2 Independent
Independent
25
COMPOUND SENTENCECONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
Bob is handsome moreover, he is rich.
Note Semicolon before
conjunctive adverb and comma after conjunctive
adverb!
26
Conjunctive Adverbs float
  • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called
    floating adverbs because they can be positioned
    at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of
    a clause.

27
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBAT THE BEGINNING, IN THE
MIDDLE,AT THE END
Bob is handsome moreover, he is rich. Bob is
handsome he is, moreover, rich. Bob is
handsome he is rich, moreover.
28
Semicolons
  • If the relation between the ideas expressed in
    the main clauses is very close and obvious
    without a conjunction, you can separate the
    clauses with a semicolon (Little, Brown
    Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).

29
COMPOUND SENTENCESEMICOLON
Tom has benefited from his exercise program he
is slim and energetic.
30
Simple and Compound Sentence Practice
31
Simple or Compound Sentence?
  • 1. I haven't seen Ann lately, and I won't see
    her again until fall.

32
Answer
  • compound

33
Simple or Compound?
  • 2. Mr. Holmes listens to the news every night,
    and then he goes to bed

34
Answer
  • Compound

35
Simple or Compound?
  • 3. Helen is going to Spain today and will come
    home July 25.

36
Answer
  • Simple

37
Simple or Compound
  • 4. Will you wait for me, or do you want to go
    ahead?

38
Answer
  • Compound

39
Simple or Compound?
  • 5. The children argue and wrangle over every
    little thing.

40
Answer
  • Simple

41
Simple or Compound?
  • 6. We had nearly finished our thirty-six holes of
    golf, and I was exhausted. _____

42
Answer
  • compound

43
Simple or Compound?
  • 7. I had originally planned to attend the
    meeting however, now I find I can't.

44
Answer
  • Compound

45
Simple or Compound?
  • 8. Mrs. Brent likes to drive she finds it
    relaxing.

46
Answer
  • Compound

47
Simple or Compound?
  • 9. Annette is afraid of the water consequently,
    she had trouble passing the swimming test.

48
Answer
  • compound

49
Simple or Compound?
  • 10. Dan showered and dressed in his best clothes.

50
Answer
  • Simple

51
  • Good job! I hope you are now able to identify
    simple and compound sentences.

52
Complex Sentence
53
Complex Sentence
  • A complex sentence has at least two parts one
    that can stand alone and another one that cannot
  • The part that cannot stand alone is linked to the
    rest of the sentence by a subordinating
    conjunction

54
Complex Sentence
Since my boyfriend and I wanted to have fun,
we went to San Juan yesterday.
55
Complex Sentence
Since we wanted to have fun,
Subordinating Conjunction
Part that cannot stand alone
Subject
Predicate
we went to San Juan yesterday.
56
Complex Sentence
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
even though
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
57
Complex Sentence
Bob
is popular
even though
he
is ugly.
58
COMPLEX SENTENCESUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
The most common subordinating conjunctions are
"after," "although," "as," "because," "before,"
"how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that,"
though," "till," "until," "when," "where,"
"whether, and while."
59
COMPLEX SENTENCESUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
Clause 1
Clause 2 Independent
Dependent
60
COMPLEX SENTENCESUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.
Clause 1
Clause 2 Dependent
Independent
61
Compound-Complex Sentence
62
Compound-Complex Sentence
  • This type of sentence has more than one part
    that can stand alone, and at least one that
    cannot.
  • Conjunctions link the different parts of this
    sentence.

63
Compound-Complex Sentence
Since we wanted to have fun,
my boyfriend and I went to San Juan yesterday,
and we danced all night.
64
Compound-Complex Sentence
Subordinating Conjunction
Since we wanted to have fun,
Part that cannot stand alone
my boyfriend and I went to San Juan,
Subject
Predicate
Coordinating Conjunction
and we danced all night.
65
Compound-Complex Sentence
Mike
is popular
because
he
is good looking,
but
he
is not very happy.
66
Exercises
  • Say if the following sentences are
  • Simple, compound, complex or compound-complex.

67
  • The bell rang.
  • Bridget ran the first part of the race, and Tara
    biked the second part.
  • He stands at the bottom of the cliff while the
    climber moves up the rock.
  • The skier turned and jumped.
  • Naoki passed the test because he studied hard and
    understood the material.

68
Answers
  1. Simple
  2. Compound
  3. Complex
  4. Simple
  5. Compound-complex

69
  1. Because Kayla has so much climbing experience ,
    we asked her to lead our group.
  2. You and I need piano lessons.
  3. I planned to go to the hockey game, but I
    couldnt get tickets.
  4. Dorothy likes white water rafting, but she also
    enjoys kayaking.
  5. There are many problems to solve before this
    program can be used, but engineers believe that
    they will be able to solve them soon.

70
Answers
  • Complex
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Compound
  • Compound-complex

71
References
Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains
Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999. The Little, Brown
Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron,
Pearson, 2004.
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