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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 22 Non-Respiratory Air Movements Regulation of Respiration Medullary respiratory center Dorsal respiratory center (DRC) Ventral ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


1
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • Chapter 22

2
RESPIRATION
  • The exchange of gases between the atmosphere,
    lungs, blood, and tissues

3
Respiration
  • Pulmonary ventilationbreathing
  • External respirationoccurs within the lungs
  • Transport of respiratory gasesvia the blood
  • Internal respirationoccurs within the tissues

4
REQUIREMENTS
  • Gas exchange surfaces must be thin.
  • Gas exchange surfaces must remain moist.
  • Gas exchange surfaces must be large in relation
    to the size of the organism.

5
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
  • Nose and nasal cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm

6
Nose
7
Nose
8
Pharynx
9
Pharynx
10
Larynx
11
Larynx
12
Vocal Folds and Ligaments
13
Trachea and Bronchial Tree
14
Tracheal Anatomy
15
Tracheal Anatomy
16
Conducting Zones
17
Bronchial Tree
18
Lower Bronchial Tree
19
Alveoli and Respiratory Membrane
20
Alveoli and Respiratory Membrane
21
Tissue Changes Summarized
  • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  • Simple columnar
  • Cuboidal
  • Smooth muscle
  • Cartilage rings
  • Cilia
  • Simple squamous

22
The Lungs and Pleural Coverings
23
The Lungs and Pleural Coverings
24
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
25
Pressures
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Alveolar pressure (intrapulmonary pressure)
  • Intrapleural pressure
  • Boyles Law
  • More volumeless pressure
  • Less volumemore pressure

26
Thoracic Volume and Inspiration
27
Thoracic Volume and Expiration
28
Changes in Thoracic Volumes
29
Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Airway Resistance
  • Surface Tension
  • Lung Compliance

30
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
31
Volumes and Capacities
32
Volumes and Capacities
33
Dead Space
  • Anatomical dead space
  • Alveolar dead space
  • Total dead space

34
Non-Respiratory Air Movements
35
Regulation of Respiration
  • Medullary respiratory center
  • Dorsal respiratory center (DRC)
  • Ventral respiratory center (VRC)
  • Pontine center
  • formerly called the Pneumotaxic center
  • Hypothalamus

36
Gas Transport
37
Basic Properties of Gases
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
38
Partial Pressure and Gas Exchange
39
At the Lungs
40
At the Tissues
41
Factors Influencing Gas Transport and Hemoglobin
Saturation
42
Factors Influencing Gas Transport and Hemoglobin
Saturation
43
Factors Affecting Breathing Rate and Depth
44
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
  • Sinusitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Pleurisy
  • Atelectasis
  • Pneumothorax
  • Dyspnea
  • Pneumonia
  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Asthma
  • Tuberculosis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Sleep apnea
  • Hypoxia
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