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Dias nummer 1

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being in the bulls eye Higher Education in Latin America is the playing field level – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dias nummer 1


1
being in the bulls eye Higher Education in
Latin Americais the playing field level
2
  • Economic and social development
  • are increasingly driven by the advancement and
    application of knowledge
  • Education in general and tertiary education and
    ST in particular are fundamental to the
    construction of knowledge economies

3
  • However, ST systems in developing and transition
    countries face persistent problems of finance,
    efficiency, equity, quality and governance
  • New challenges linked to rapid changes in
    technology, communication and the globalization
    of trade and labor markets have amplified the
    traditional problems of tertiary education and
    research and development and ST

4
Global trends
5
Composition of the global market for goods

6
Global innovation hubs
Source Hillner (2000) and UNDP (2001)
7
Internet Hosts (pr 10,000 people, 2000)
8
Higher Education Enrollment Ratio
9
Some European countries, ad especially the
Caribbean and Africa, face significant emigration
rates of their elites (sometimes exceeding 50)
Source OECD, Trends in International Migrations
2004
10
Internationalization of Higher Education
11
Internationalization has important implications
for inserting future leaders and knowledge
workers in the global community and gaining equal
access to the rapidly increasing pool of
knowledge and know-how
12
Key developments in tertiary education in Latin
America
13
Returns by level of education Brazil (1982100)
Source Blom Holm-Nielsen and Verner (2001)
14
Large increase in tertiary enrollment
Source WDI 2003
15
Growth in private provision
Percent of total enrollment
 
Year
75-40
40-30
30-20
20-10
Less than 10
1985
Brazil Colombia Dom. Republic
Chile El Salvador Peru
Argentina Guatemala Paraguay
Costa Rica Ecuador Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Venez
uela
Bolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba
2002
Brazil Colombia Chile Dom. Republic El
Salvador Nicaragua Paraguay Peru
Venezuela  
Costa Rica Ecuador Argentina Guatemala Mexico    
Honduras
Bolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba
Source Schwartzman (2002) World Bank (2002c and
2003) Zúñiga (2003) OECD (2002a) and García
Gaudilla (1998)
16
What are the issues?
  • Weak systems and institutional management
  • Lack of cohesion
  • Inequitable participation
  • Inefficiency
  • Low quality and relevance
  • Weak national innovation systems
  • Balance in financing tertiary education
  • Brain Drain

17
Weak systems and institutional management
  • Low access to reliable and relevant information
  • Lack of accountability in use of public subsidies
  • Weak university management and governance
    structures
  • Insufficient capacity in MoEs for sector
    oversight and strategy
  • Inadequate systemic coherence

18
Potential actions
  • Build transparent management information systems
    in order to provide a solid basis for
    decision-making
  • Consolidate capacity for real autonomy with
    accountability by strengthening institutional
    governance and professional management, and
    manage by results
  • Procure technical assistance to ministries of
    education to consolidate adequate policy
    framework for tertiary education, strengthen
    long-term evaluation and planning, and manage by
    results

19
Lack of cohesion
  • Secondary and tertiary institutions are not
    working together to bridge gaps in tertiary
    opportunities
  • Weak linkages between universities and
    non-university tertiary institutions
  • No systems for the transfer of academic credits

Skill level
University
Educational dead-end
Short cycle tertiary education
Learning gap
Low quality Secondary
20
Potential actions
  • Motivate and enable poor and socially excluded
    students to complete secondary education and
    achieve academic excellence
  • Strengthen linkages between university and
    non-university sub-systems by bridging between
    short and long cycle programs
  • Support mechanisms for the transfer of academic
    credits, e.g. by promoting module-based curricula
    design (Bologna like process)

21
Inequitable participation
  • TE still elitist with the majority of students
    coming from the wealthiest segments of society
  • Inadequate student aid for poor students
  • Not enough opportunities in regions

Source World Bank (2002) ADB (2003) Del Bello
(2002) Delannoy (2000) US Census Bureau (2002)
and Chronicle of Higher Education (2003) Note
Calculations for the United States are based on
the characteristics of freshmen at 4-year
colleges in fall 2002
22
Potential actions
  • Making student loans available to academically
    bright, but financially needy students while
    promoting performance in cost-recovery and
    administrative efficiency
  • Using income-contingent loan schemes to help
    low-income families to overcome the lack of
    collateral and fear of defaulting on traditional
    mortgage-style student loan debt
  • Supporting tertiary education in regions with
    links to local needs and as stepping stone
    towards advanced education

23
Inefficiency (Argentina)
  • High drop-out rates, repetition, low graduation
    and extended cycles
  • Few financial incentives to improve learning
    outcomes and efficiency

24
Potential actions
  • Consolidate monitoring and evaluation systems and
    ensure reliable statistical data
  • Support for degree structure and curricular
    redesign
  • Link public resource allocation with objective
    performance and outcome criteria through
    performance contacts and competitive funding

25
Low quality and relevance
  • Insufficient qualifications and mobility of
    university professors
  • Too little innovation of teaching methodologies
    and curriculum
  • University graduates do not meet the skills needs
    in the economy

Source Brunner (2002), World Bank (2002) UK
Higher Education Statistics Agency Individualized
Staff Record 2001/02 García Gaudilla (1998) and
Schwartzman and Balbachevsky (1996)
26
Potential actions
  • Promote the use of quality assurance mechanisms
    with external peer-review
  • Strengthen graduate programs, and establish
    financial and promotional incentives for teachers
    to perform
  • Establish institutional strategies for staff
    renewal
  • Upgrade teaching facilities, learning materials
    and research equipment
  • Develop competency-based curricula emphasizing
    learning to learn methodologies

27
Weak national innovation systems
  • Low production and mobility of PhDs and post-docs
  • Inward orientation of university researchers
  • Lack of incentives to commercialize research and
    solve real-life problems
  • Red tape impeding partnerships and cross-sectoral
    mobility

Source IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2003
28
Potential actions
  • Improve graduate education in areas of high
    importance to the economy
  • Establish programs for the insertion of doctoral
    students and young researchers into industry
  • Strengthen ties between universities and industry
    by promoting cooperative research
  • Provide incentives for universities to
    commercialize innovations
  • Promote the participation in international
    knowledge and research networks

29
Financing tertiary education
Investments in tertiary
2.5
education, 1999
  • Strong market for tertiary education
  • Comparatively low level of public funding
  • Risk of volatility and inadequate attention to
    public priorities and national needs

2.0
1.5
of GDP
1.0
0.5
0.0
USA
Chile
Brazil
OECD
Mexico
Argentina
Colombia
Public subsidies
Private sources
Total
Source OECD (2002) and World Bank (2002)
30
Potential actions
  • Create a transparent market for tertiary
    education, e.g. by supporting accreditation, the
    collection of data on labor market outcomes, and
    monitoring evaluation
  • Link public resource allocation directly with
    objective performance and outcome criteria
    through performance based funding agreements
    (contracts) for core budget
  • Competitive grants for investment and innovation
    allocations

31
Foreign Studentsenrollment, source OECD 2003
32
Foreign Students of enrollment, Source OECD 2003
33
Brain DrainSource Wodon (2003)
34
Balance in International Mobility?
  • Foreign trained physicians US-- 27, Australia
    -- 21.4 , Canada -- 20, Switzerland 19.1,
    12.6 UK
  • Overseas trained nurses per year in UK 1998 --
    3,621, 1999 -- 5945., 2004 -- 15,064

35
Potential actions
  • prioritize internationalization at the political
    agenda, and develop a proactive
    internationalization agenda
  • aim at balance in exchange of students and
    knowledge workers by attracting foreign students
    or skilled nationals from abroad, including from
    within the region
  • develop adequate strategies for LA countries to
    reap the full benefits of the GATS

36
Universities in the bulls eye thanks for the
invitationrektor_at_au.dk
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