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Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding) urban area of Xilunguine / Louren

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Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding) urban area of Xilunguine / Louren o Marques / Maputo Paul Jenkins Professor of Architecture and Human Settlements – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding) urban area of Xilunguine / Louren


1
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Paul Jenkins
  • Professor of Architecture and Human Settlements
  • Urban Studies, School of the Built Environment,
    Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
  • http//www.sbe.hw.ac.uk/staffprofiles/J/PaulJenkin
    s.htm
  • Research Professor in Architecture
  • Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape
    Architecture
  • http//www.esala.ac.uk/people/academics/pjenkins.h
    tml

2
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Introduction
  • Sources of information and nature of underlying
    research
  • Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Mozambique
  • The scale, context and nature of urbanisation
  • The concept of informality
  • Maputo A brief historical overview of urban
    expansion and land occupation
  • Political economic forces and socio-cultural
    values
  • Maputo Recent trends and new ways of
    understanding the urban
  • Hiding from or imitating the state
  • Implications for urban development
  • Challenging embedded concepts of order and
    disorder in urban space and form

3
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Sources of information and nature of underlying
    research
  • Working professionally in Mozambique as city
    planner Maputo 1980-5 and then at central
    government level (including with international
    agencies) 1985-1993 latter period including
    social research
  • Continued professional engagement in urban issues
    in Mozambique, including Maputo since on
    short-term basis
  • ESRC funded project 2000-1 on emerging urban land
    markets in the city
  • Current Danish Research Council funded project
    2009-11 on Home Space in African cities, based
    in Maputo
  • Continued wider research into the history of the
    city as well as current trends
  • Personal engagement in Mozambican society from
    early 1980s to present
  • Sources of information are both formal
    (professional, academic) and informal
  • Academic engagement includes architecture,
    planning, anthropology and urban history
    (physical and social)

4
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa scale and
    economic context
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the last global
    macro-region to begin to urbanise, a process
    which is well underway
  • In 1950 SSA had 33 million urban residents 4.5
    world population
  • In 2005 it had some 330 million urban residents
    11 world population
  • In 2030 it is estimated to have 730 million
    urban residents 15 world population
  • This process is happening in quite unique context
    of high levels of general poverty
  • High proportion of least developed countries
  • Two decades of economic stagnation and structural
    marginalisation,
  • Some recent changes e.g. Chinese/Brazilian
    investment
  • For more see Chapters 1 9 in Jenkins, Smith
    Wang (2006) Housing and Planning in the Rapidly
    Urbanising World, Routledge

5
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa nature
  • Urban settlements of ancient origin, usually
    linked to exchange and trade
  • Fixed urban settlement reinforced by European
    mercantilism (16th century on) and later
    colonisation (late 19th century)
  • Colonial control over urban settlement removed at
    independence leading to rapid rise in urban
    population through rural-urban migration (post
    1950s)
  • While in-migration still important, natural
    population growth in urban areas is generally now
    more significant
  • Tendency to primacy in urban form, however recent
    trends in urbanisation leading to proportional
    growth in secondary and tertiary urban areas
  • Increasing complexity of urban migratory trends,
    including international, circular and intra-urban
  • Many not-urban, not-rural settlement forms and
    straddling survival mechanisms developing due
    to limited economic absorption in urban economies

6
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • The concept of urban informality
  • This is predicated on
  • Limited (and often decreasing) forms of formal
    economic growth and lack of recognition of
    importance of urban-based economies in policy
    (including international organisations)
  • Government decentralisation not being accompanied
    by resources in urban areas and limited
    government capacity to regulate the formal
  • Informal settlements are now generally seen as
    slums is this a return of a puritanical
    attitude, or a different form of anti-urban bias?
  • The majority of urban dwellers live and work in
    situations of so-called informality
  • There is a need for a new attitude to the
    life-work conditions of the urban poor majority,
    one based on social legitimacy and not some form
    of idealised urban normality drawn from other
    places and other times

UN estimates SSA had 166 million slum dwellers
in 2001 (72 urban population) By 2015 this is
estimated to double to 332 million The 146
million new slum dwellers in SSA will far
outstrip UN goals (improve lives of 100 million
slum dwellers worldwide)
7
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Maputo A brief historical overview of urban
    expansion and land occupation a story of
    political economic forces and socio-cultural
    values
  • Early colonial period 1850-1915
  • Middle colonial period 1915-1955
  • Late colonial period 1955-1975
  • Early independent period 1975-1990
  • More recent independent period 1990-2010

Jenkins (2009) African cities competing claims
on urban land, chapter in African cities
competing claims on urban spaces, Nugent
Locatelli (eds), Brill, Leiden
8
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion Early colonial period 1850-1915
  • Small permanent trading settlement consolidated
    with land leasing arrangements from Crown (1858).
    Large scale foreign land speculation in 1860s.
  • Gold discovered in Transvaal 1870s, leading to
    rapid growth of port. Annexation of land to north
    with hut tax established 1882. Railway built from
    1886 - 1895. First land register established
    1886. Town raised to city status by Crown 1887.
  • Indigenous land rights removed 1890, except in
    reserves . Partition of Africa at Berlin
    Conference 1894/5 required consolidation of area
    of military control, which was expanded to
    subordinate the indigenous (Nguni) Gaza state to
    north. Capital of colony moved to city 1895,
    first expansion plan 1896, state investment in
    major public works

Original European settlement 1876 plan, initial
expansion plan 1878, final expansion plan 1903
9
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion Early colonial period 1850-1915
  • Early 20th century. State bought back land
    holdings in northeast outside of previous
    boundary but some foreign speculators resisted
    legal disputes lasted until mid 20th century.
    Slow physical development of planned settlement
    until tram installed 1920s
  • Urban area expanded informally to northwest with
    small colonial land concessions used for
    informal African housing from late 1920s -
    northeast development blocked by land speculators

Maputo 1915, showing wider area to come within
the land cadastre, incorporating previous areas
of indigenous settlement, informal development
and land speculation
10
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion Middle colonial period 1915-1955
  • Middle 20th century. Colonial settlement schemes
    and indigenous labour migration underpinned rapid
    urban expansion former in cement city with
    class and racial division, and latter in informal
    settlements, mostly renting land/housing from
    settler landowners (northwest). Housing scheme
    for assimilados built 1940s
  • During late 1940s industrial production started
    and some new satellite settlements developed
    (e.g. Machava). New urban master plan prepared by
    1952 avoiding most northwest informal
    settlements but requiring expropriation or
    engagement with large foreign landowners to
    Northeast (to restrain new speculative
    development)

1925 cadastre plan showing informal area (NW)
1952 area of speculator blockage (NE) and 1952
urban plan
11
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion Late colonial period 1955-1975
  • Continued rapid demographic expansion with
    sponsored immigration and limited effective
    control of inward rural migration. Formal
    development pushed upwards due to informal
    settlement barriers northwest and slow resolution
    of northeast land disputes. Urban land registry
    area in Maputo extended significantly to north
    1965 - 88 of 770 Ha in private
    freehold/leasehold, 85 held by 11 landowners
  • Change of legislation on foreign inward
    investment led to late industrial boom, generally
    settled in new town to west (Matola) leapfrogging
    informal areas and also due to land
    availability/cost. Associated sites and services
    areas developed for indigenous workforce and
    change of legislation allowed indigenous urban
    land holding.
  • 1970s Belated attempt to control increasing
    informal settlements in Maputo with new Master
    Plan (1969-1972) and new Metropolitan Urban
    Planning Authority - including new sites and
    services developments and improving services to
    informal settlements.

1972 master plan
12
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion Early independent period 1975-90
  • widespread pent-up in-migration and limited
    action (reactive/proactive)
  • 1975-6 start of sites and services in Maputo
  • 1977-9 state action through UN supported expanded
    sites services (Machava), and informal
    upgrading (Maxaquene)
  • City council basic urbanisation programme in
    urban periphery 1980-5 provides 10,400 new plots
    for lower income groups, but soon to collapse due
    to political clientelism
  • 1989 Operacao Producao - failed to restrict
    urban in-migration, civil war has an increasing
    effect in southern region
  • Massive in-migration in late 1980s, early 1990s
    due to war and collapse of rural economy

Land occupation maps based on aerial photography
13
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Maputo expansion More recent independent period
1990-2010
Informal settlement continuing to north of Matola
within reach of road access (limited in
interior) Densification of formal land layouts
and Informal settlements in Matola Formal sector
speculation ties up all land around New motorway
to South Africa New aluminium factory (with
associated residential development) in province
increasingly attracting informal settlement Mix
of formal sector speculation and informal
settlement into province
Informal settlement continuing on escarpment into
neighbouring provincial district
Marracuene Formal sector speculative land
grabbing and some layouts along main north road,
informal settlements across municipal
boundaries Mix of formal layouts for middle class
and densifying informal settlement on coastal
plain Speculation at Catembe to south of the bay
and lobbying for bridge to realise land values
14
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Maputo Recent trends and new ways of
    understanding the urban
  • 1997-8 construction of new motorway to
    Witwatersrand led to distant relocation of people
    to new housing area to northeast of city this
    led to wider engagement in illegal land market
  • 2000 study identified emerging land markets as
    major way to access land despite continued
    nationalised status
  • Floods of 2000 led to major donor assistance in
    re-housing people area available an extension
    of 1982 sites service area to north
  • Heightened sense of land values led to extensive
    corrupt / non-regulated land access practices,
    which have now become the de facto norm for land
    development

As recent research has shown, a strong tendency
in this process is to imitate the state in
informal land development, as well as housing
(Nielson 2009, 2010 )
15
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
Informal continuation of planned land
development by traditional landholders, city
council officials and local administrators for
personal gain Core of the 2000-1 emergency
housing area 1982 sites service area, only
effectively occupied by early1990s 1990s ad-hoc
partially planned sites for teachers etc
16
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
The alternative strategy is more one of hiding
from the state Here traditional land holders
sell of land around their own home spaces in
areas less well accessed
17
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Maputo Recent trends and new ways of
    understanding the urban
  • This current situation reflects both strong
    socio-cultural interests and political economic
    forces where the boundaries between the 'formal'
    and 'informal' are kept fuzzy
  • In this 'grey area' a range of new attitudes and
    practices develop which are exploited by the poor
    as well as the rich, the weak as well as the
    powerful - albeit differentially
  • the political and economic elite have been
    speculating in land since the late 1980s, using
    the lack of legislation to access land through
    state allocation, and later the new land
    legislation to consolidate their rights to this
    land they occupy the best locations and large
    areas
  • the poor operate underneath the state as
    informally as possible, but aiming to avoid state
    interference by imitating the states norms, or
    hiding from these adapting socio-culture
    values to political and economic realities
  • the emerging middle class has until recently been
    relatively excluded from this process, but is now
    acting under new planning legislation to
    strengthen their land access this potentially
    threatens lower-income informal access,
    especially where this is not planned which is
    the majority of the city area

18
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Implications for urban development 1
  • Links between social order and physical order in
    space and form are historic but varied however
    these became dominant in Western thought from
    the Enlightenment and are deeply embedded within
    the discourse of urban planning
  • These are largely based on positivist
    epistemologies that define abstract norms and
    apply these as a means of control this process
    being led by state-licenced expertise
  • While this was to some extent possible in a world
    where urban space and form was largely driven by
    state-dominated political economies (whether
    capitalist or communist, colonial or
    post-colonial), it is proving impossible in the
    urban explosions of the most recent form of
    globalisation and demographic change
  • The resources needed to continue to plan rapid
    urban growth in many parts of the world are not
    available in the current political economies and
    hence there is limited physical control by the
    state what does this mean for ordered urban
    development

19
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Implications for urban development 2
  • In this context the binary of what is formal
    and informal often becomes a way of the
    powerful exploiting the majority
  • As illustrated in Maputo, this produces various
    approaches by the poor majority to develop urban
    areas either hidden from, or reflecting, state
    activity as this is usually exploitative to the
    benefit of elites
  • Any attempts to 'plan' the city here needs to
    understand the realpolitik of the political
    economy and emerging hybrid socio-cultural
    attitudes to urban land, and not necessarily
    attempt to implant some form of 'rational planned
    order
  • Such an approach to what is valid as 'urban' in
    this context needs to be inductively assessed and
    not deductively based on imported norms and
    values of the urban
  • To function, this form of planning thus needs
    to be grounded in de facto culturally embedded
    perceptions and socially constructed forms of
    interaction, challenging the states de jure
    dominance of land and environmental resource

20
Changing attitudes to land in the (expanding)
urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques /
Maputo
  • Key sources
  • Costa (2007) O preco da sombra Sobrevivencia e
    reproducao social entre familias de Maputo
    Livros Horizonte, Lisbon
  • Jenkins (2001) Emerging land markets for housing
    in Mozambique the impact on the poor and
    alternatives to improve land access and urban
    development - an action research project in
    peri-urban Maputo, Edinburgh College of
    Art/Heriot-Watt University, School of Planning
    Housing, Research Paper No. 75
  • Jenkins (2004) Querying the concepts of formal
    and informal in land access in developing world -
    case of Maputo, chapter in The formal and
    informal city what happens at the interface,
    Vaa Hansen (eds), Nordic Africa Institute,
    Uppsala
  • Jenkins (2006) The image of the city in
    Mozambique, chapter in African urban economies
    viability, vitality or vitiation of major cities
    in East and Southern Africa?, Bryceson Potts
    (eds), Palgrave, Basingstoke
  • Jenkins (2009) African cities competing claims
    on urban land, chapter in African cities
    competing claims on urban spaces, Nugent
    Locatelli (eds), Brill, Leiden
  • Jenkins, Smith Wang (2006) Housing and
    planning in the rapidly urbanising world,
    Routledge, Oxford
  • Nielsen (2008) In the vicinity of the state
    House construction, personhood, and the state in
    Maputo, Mozambique, PhD Institute of
    Anthropology, University of Copenhagen
  • Nielsen (2010 forthcoming) Regulating reciprocal
    distances House construction projects as inverse
    governmentality in Maputo, Mozambique, chapter
    in Markets for peace, Buur Rodgers (eds),
    Palgrave, Basingstoke
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