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Lecture 10 Drought Desertification Global warming Floods and Tsunami Land, Sea, Air Pollution Water Shortages – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drought

Lecture 10
  • Drought
  • Desertification
  • Global warming
  • Floods and Tsunami
  • Land, Sea, Air Pollution
  • Water Shortages

Lecture 10.1
  • Environmental Security, According to Buzan 1983,
    refers to the capacity to live in harmony with
    nature or to maintain sustainable development.
  • Salih defines environmental Security in two

Lecture 10.2
  • 1. As it relates to the capacity of individuals
    and groups to meet thweir basic needs from a
    sustainable environment.
  • 2. Involves a serious consequence for social,
    economic, political and physical security
    environmental degradation, resource scarcity,
    natural resource conflicts

Lecture 10.3
  • D. Redefinition of security has indicated that
    resource scarcity and environmental degradation
    play an important role in producing violent
    conflicts at interstate level.
  • 1. Southern Africa Zimbabwe Land, Angola
    Diamonds, DRC Land, minerals
  • 2. West Africa- Nigeria and oil conflicts

Lecture 10.4
  • 3. Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia.
  • E. Environmental Security also encompasses issues
    such as respect for human rights and basic
    cultural and economic needs.
  • F. According to Tevera and Moyo there are six
    main issues that emerge in environmental security
    in Southern Africa.

Lecture 10.5
  • 1. Secure supplies of water. Emerging Terms of
    quantity, quality, regularity and pricing
  • 2. Competing or conflicting claims to and uses of
    natural resources and interstate and transborder
    community level.

Lecture 10.6
  • 3. Transboundary ecological effects of natural
    resources management caused mainly by interstate
    practices leading to various effects.
  • 4. Militarisation and regimentalisation of nature
    management in relation to illegal and armed
    grabbing of natural resources across national

Lecture 10.7
  • 5. New forms of Land Alienation through cross
    border joint management of natural resources to
    achieve economies of scale.
  • 6.External/Global hegemony and control over
    natural resources and their use through private
    cross border transactional firms investment
    supported by regional arrangements, or global
    governance, treaties trade and aid conditionality
    on environmental policy.

Lecture 10.8
  • G. Issues In Southyern Africa. The Region has a
    number of Problems
  • 1. Natural Resource Degradation and Pollution.
  • 2. Growing Interstate and Private compettition
  • 3. Conflict over control and use of Natural

Lecture 10.9
  • H. The National and Regional struggle to control
    natural resources has become central to political
    stability, economic development and environmental
  • 1. Areas in the Semi-arid regions are the locus
    of water resources conflict.
  • 2. Growth of urban areas has also raised the
    demand for water-domestic , industrial and
    agricultural use.

Lecture 10.10
  • 3.Rapid expansions of Tourist , industry and
    export markets are soruces of transboundary
    conflict wildlife and forest products.
  • 4. Land as a resource has been alienated from
    indegenous people in the colonial era.
  • 5. Movement of people across boundaries have
    damaged thee fragile ecosystem mainly from
    conflicts (refugees-Mozambique, Rhodesia, DRC,

Lecture 10.11
  • 6. Economic depressions and droughts in some SADC
    regions have lead to conflicts as migrants claim
    their share of natural and socio-economic
  • 7. Countries in Southern Africa seem to be
    prepared to wage war as they compete for

Lecture 10.12
  • Sidhudhu island fiercely contested by Botswana
    and Namibia.
  • Claiming of key tributaries by Botswana
  • Obstruction of Inland Delta water resources
    Okavango in Botswana and Namibia

Lecture 10.13
  • 8.There is an increase in River siltation,
    pollution of water and air by cross border and
    industrial and agricultural activity.
  • 9. National sovereignty continue to be threatened
    by increased globalization of natural resources
    and management.
  • a) Land ownership by few elites

Lecture 10.14
  • b) Acceptance of White South African farmers in
    Zambia and Mozambique
  • 10. South African Capital has taken control of
    good land and other natural resources in SADC
  • 11. The proliferation of global environment
    concerns and aid conditionality raises problems
    for nationals control over their resources e.g.
    CITES prohibits exploitation of elephants through
    Ivory ban.

  • 1.   Environmental degradation- siltation,
    overgrazing, leaching and erosion.
  • A.   Land issue in southern Africa is more
    concerned with
  • 1.   Indigenous people being victims of injustice
    in the past( tribal trust lands in Zimbabwe,
    Bantustans in South Africa, southern Malawi)

  • 1.   Exclusion from access to land and natural
    resources as a result of post colonial
  • A.   The consequences are varied
  • 1.   Land occupations-invasions
  • 2.   Popular protest
  • 3.   Renegotiating votes

  • A.   The importance of land in Southern Africa
    stem from the point that inequitable access to
    land is essential in reducing poverty. Through
    production income, meeting household needs, wood
    fuel, medicines, housing materials and game meat.
  • B.  Of importance is the central role played by
    agriculture in southern Africa.

  • A.   A critical case in point is Botswanas
    Basarwa people who have been described as the
    poorest of the poor and have over years been
    dispossessed of their land. Although they
    constitute 4 of the population its an issue that
    can cause dissention.

  • A.   Water resources
  • 1.   There has been growing need of water in
    southern Africa
  • a)   Industrialisation
  • b)   Population growth
  • c)   Massive urbanisation
  • d)   intensification of agricultural activities

  • 1.   Water scarcity have the potential of
    bringing conflict. a)   At regional level the
    Zambezi river Basin which passes through 8
    countries. b)   Local levels e.g. Zimbabwe Mazoe
    farmers.2.   According to Swain et al Southern
    Africa is one of the worlds water scarce
    regions. It has failed to supply the 50 litres of
    water per person per day, which according to WHO
    is the basic amount needed by a human being.

  • A.   What should be done
  • 1.   Land reform
  • 2.   Increase water sources
  • 3.   Early warning systems
  • Land management systems
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