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Chapter%2028%20Notes

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Chapter 28 Notes Our Solar System Our Solar System The Inner Planets (and Pluto) All the Planets (and Pluto) The Planets and the Sun (and Pluto) Formation of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%2028%20Notes


1
Chapter 28 Notes
  • Our Solar System

2
Our Solar System
3
The Inner Planets (and Pluto)
4
All the Planets (and Pluto)
5
The Planets and the Sun (and Pluto)
6
Formation of the Solar System
  • Nebular Theory
  • Interstellar cloud contracts and spins
  • Dense center begins nuclear fusion (sun)
  • Remaining material forms planetesimals and then
    planets

7
Historical Solar System Models
  • Geocentric (Earth-centered) model
  • One problem was how to explain retrograde motion
  • Copernicus heliocentric model
  • 1543, Polish scientist
  • Planets (including Earth) orbit the Sun in
    circular orbits
  • Supporting evidence collected by Tycho Brahe

8
Keplers laws of planetary motion
  • Johannes Kepler inherited Tychos data after his
    unexpected death.

9
Galileo
  • First person to use a telescope to observe the
    sky
  • Discovered moons orbiting Jupiter
  • Also observed sun spots, phases of Venus, and
    Moon craters

10
Newton and Gravity
  • Newtons discovery of the law of universal
    gravitation provided an explanation for the
    heliocentric model of the solar system

11
Zone 1 Inner Planets
  • Terrestrial Earth-like
  • Small
  • Composed of rock (high density)
  • Close to the Sun
  • Few or no moons
  • No rings

12
Mercury
  • Smallest
  • Closest to the Sun
  • No moons
  • No atmosphere
  • Cratered like the Moon
  • 1 orbit 1.5 rotations (2 years 3 days)

13
Venus
  • No moons
  • Earths twin in size
  • Rotates backwards
  • 1 day 243 Earth days
  • Very high CO2 concentration in the atmosphere
    causes super greenhouse effect
  • Surface temperature of 464?C!!
  • Can be seen as a bright morning or evening star

14
Earth
  • One moon
  • Tectonically active
  • O2 in atmosphere
  • Water exists in all 3 phases
  • Mild greenhouse effect to keep the planet warm
    enough for life

15
Mars
  • The red planet
  • CO2 atmosphere
  • 2 moons (Phobos and Deimos)
  • Has seasons like Earth, but a year is twice as
    long
  • Largest volcano in the solar system Olympus Mons
  • Once had liquid water, has polar CO2 ice caps

16
Outer Planets
  • Gas giants or Jovian Jupiter-like
  • Large
  • Low density
  • Lots of moons
  • All have ring systems
  • Far from the Sun

17
Jupiter
  • Largest planet
  • Banded appearance
  • Great red spot
  • Faint ring system
  • 4 large moons, more than 60 total
  • Rapid rotation (10 hours 1 day) shortest day
    of all the planets

18
Saturn
  • Famous for ring system
  • More than 55 moons
  • Density lower than water
  • Largest moon, Titan, has an atmosphere of
    nitrogen and methane
  • Another moon, Enceladus, shows evidence of
    geologic activity

19
Uranus
  • Discovered in 1781
  • Rotational axis is 98?
  • At least 27 moons
  • Rings are dark and nearly invisible
  • Appears blue because of the way it reflects light

20
Neptune
  • Discovered 1846
  • 13 moons
  • Distinctive clouds and belts
  • Predicted before it was discovered
  • 6 rings composed of dust particles
  • Largest moon, Triton, orbits backwards

21
Other Solar System Objects
  • Dwarf planets
  • Asteroids
  • Kuiper belt objects (KBOs)
  • Comets (the Oort cloud)
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