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The Growth of US Imperialism

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Title: The Growth of US Imperialism


1
The Growth of US Imperialism
  • Chapter 10
  • Lesson One Isolation to Imperialism The Foreign
    Policy Spectrum

2
One day at school you notice a huge ring of
students jostling and pushing. As you get
closer, you hear some of the students yelling
Fight! Like the rest, you want to see what is
happening. Finally finding a vantage point, you
see two students threatening one another. One is
a good friend the other is a former friend and
current enemy who owes you money. What will you
do?
3
1. Turn away and leave because the fight does not
concern you and getting involved will only mean
trouble.
2. Convince a couple of friends to help you
separate the two students before they hurt each
other.
3. Get into the fight on your friends side and
punch out the former friend who owes you money
since he deserves it.
4. Punch out both students to show the rest of
the school who is the toughest kid on campus.
4
  • In this activity, you will be examining the
    choices the United States has made in its foreign
    policy relations with other countries. These
    choices are
  • Isolationism
  • Collective security
  • Internationalism
  • Imperialism
  • They parallel the choices you made as approaches
    to the fight on campus.

5
Isolationism
  • Strict non-involvement in the affairs of other
    nations

Collective Security
  • Working with other countries to influence world
    affairs

6
Internationalism
  • Intervening in other countries affairs to
    promote national interests and/or national
    security

Imperialism
  • Extending power by acquiring territory around the
    globe or exploiting weaker nations to serve
    national interests

7
Directions
  • Read the description of the foreign policy
    action.
  • Discuss where it should be placed on the
    spectrum.
  • As a class, we will shade the space or spaces
    that corresponds to the foreign policy stance you
    think the action represents.
  • Explain why you placed the item where you did in
    the Reason box.

8
  • Washingtons Farewell Address
  • In the late 1700s many nations formed their
    foreign policy in such a way as to maintain a
    balance of power with other countries. Countries
    often sought out alliances to ensure that they
    had enough allies to prevent an attack by an
    unfriendly nation. But George Washington tried
    to steer the United States in a different
    direction. In his 1796 Farewell Address he said,
    The great rule of conduct for us in regard to
    foreign nations is in extending our commercial
    relations but to have with them as little
    political connection as possible.

9
  • Washingtons Farewell Address, cont.
  • He argued that trade with other nations would
    benefit Americans, but that entangling
    alliances would draw the United States into
    undesirable conflicts. Washingtons counsel to
    avoid military alliances was followed throughout
    the 1800s and remained a major foreign policy
    consideration during the twentieth century as
    well.

10
Pick an answer or answers!
11
Draft of George Washingtons Farewell Address
12
Answer
  • Isolationism

Reason
  • Washington rejected the alliance system.
    Instead, he wanted the United States to remain
    politically independent from other nations.

13
  • The Monroe Doctrine
  • In December 1823 President James Monroe issued
    his final message to Congress. Concerned about
    European colonization in Latin America and on the
    West coast, Monroe declared, the American
    continentsare henceforth not to be considered as
    subject for future colonization by any European
    powers. In other words, the US would not
    tolerate European interference in the Western
    Hemisphere.

14
  • The Monroe Doctrine
  • This statement, known as the Monroe Doctrine, has
    come to be one of the most important foreign
    policy statements in US history. In the 1820s
    the US did not have the military strength to back
    up Monroes words. However, in the years since
    Monroes speech, the US has maintained a keen
    interest in Latin American affairs and has sent
    troops to that region more often than to any
    other region in the world.

15
Pick an answer or answers!
16
(No Transcript)
17
Answer
The Monroe Doctrine
  • Half internationalism, half imperialism

Reason
  • Monroe believed that the US had the right to
    influence events in Latin America and to warn
    other nations to stay away.

18
  • The Mexican-American War
  • In 1846 President James Polk sent US troops into
    an area of Texas just north of the Rio Grande
    that was claimed by both the US and Mexico. Polk
    was intent on achieving manifest destiny the
    belief that the US was destined to occupy the
    territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific
    Oceans by extending US territory across the
    southwest from Texas to California. When Mexico
    refused to sell this territory to the US,
    tensions between the two countries grew. In
    early May 1846, Mexican and US troops engaged in
    a skirmish in the disputed area.

19
  • The Mexican-American War
  • President Polk expressed outrage at the loss of
    American blood upon American soil, and called
    for war with Mexico. Congress was divided on the
    question of war with Mexico. Abraham Lincoln
    believed that a war with Mexico was nothing more
    than naked aggression. Nevertheless, the US went
    to war, and by 1848 had invaded Mexico and
    conquered the territory from Texas to the Pacific
    Ocean, an area now encompassing New Mexico,
    Arizona, and California.

20
Pick an answer or answers!
21
The North American Invasion, First Battles
22
Answer
The Mexican-American War
  • Imperialism

Reason
  • The US declared war with Mexico to gain power and
    to force Mexico to give up territory so the US
    could achieve manifest destiny land
    stretching from coast to coast.

23
  • US Entry Into World War I
  • In 1914 war broke out in Europe, with Germany and
    Austria-Hungary battling against France, Great
    Britain, and Italy. The US immediately declared
    neutrality. In spite of a declaration of
    neutrality, the US supplied more arms to the
    British and French than to the Germans in the
    first few years of the war. Germany retaliated
    by sinking unarmed US merchant ships and a
    British passenger liner carrying American
    citizens, the Lusitania. In 1917 Germany
    attempted to negotiate a treaty with Mexico in
    which Mexico would attack the US.

24
  • US Entry Into World War I
  • In return, Germany would help Mexico regain the
    lands lost during the Mexican-American War.
    After two years of official neutrality but
    unofficial support for Britain and France, the US
    declared war on Germany in 1917. President
    Wilson told Americans they would fight to make
    the world safe for democracy. The arrival in
    Europe of 2 million US troops helped to turn the
    tide of the war, resulting in a bitter German
    defeat in 1918.

25
Pick an answer or answers!
26
Trench Warfare Over the top
27
Answer
US Entry into WWI
  • Collective Security and Internationalism

Reason
  • The US went to war to make the world safe for
    democracy.

28
  • US Entry Into World War II
  • In the 1920s many Americans believed that
    involvement in WWI had been a mistake, and that
    President Wilsons proposal for a strong
    international organization to prevent future wars
    was overly idealistic. They believed that the
    United States should remain self-sufficient and
    not become entangled in costly foreign
    commitments. However, during the 1930s a
    frightening series of events overseas
    demonstrated that the US victory in WWI had not
    succeeded in making the world safe for
    democracy.

29
  • US Entry Into World War II
  • Lingering hatreds from WWI produced a passion for
    revenge in Germany. Fascist and military regimes
    in Germany, Italy, and Japan conquered weaker
    nations in Europe, North Africa, and Asia. The
    US struggled to stay out of the fighting while
    sometimes providing economic and diplomatic
    support for the victims of aggression. Then in
    1941 a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor forced the
    reluctant country into WWII.

30
Pick an answer or answers!
31
Iwo Jima
32
Answer
US Entry into WWII
  • Isolationism and Internationalism

Reason
  • The US stayed out of foreign involvements in the
    1920s and 1930s. Then it entered WWII to help
    stop Fascist and military regimes from taking
    over the world.

33
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • At the end of WWII, the wartime alliance between
    the US and the Soviet Union turned into a bitter
    rivalry between the two countries a rivalry
    known as the Cold War. The Soviets, led by Josef
    Stalin, established a ring of Communist states
    around the Soviet border in Eastern Europe and
    appeared to be looking for more territory around
    the globe. In 1947 it appeared that Communist
    rebels supported by the Soviets were poised
    to take control of Greece and Turkey.

34
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • The United States responded with a new US foreign
    policy. President Truman asked Congress for
    military aid for the governments of both
    countries. In his request for aid, Truman argued
    that it was the responsibility of the US to
    defend free peoples who are resisting
    subjugation by armed minorities or by outside
    pressure. Known as the Truman Doctrine, this
    pronouncement committed the US to fighting the
    spread of communism throughout the world.

35
Pick an answer or answers!
36
(No Transcript)
37
Answer
The Truman Doctrine
  • Internationalism

Reason
  • The Truman Doctrine committed the US to protect
    countries from communism throughout the world.

38
  • The Vietnam War
  • The Vietnam War, the United States longest
    foreign war, cost 58,000 American lives and more
    than 150 billion. In keeping with the policy of
    containment not allowing communism to spread
    the US goal in the war was to preserve a
    separate, independent, noncommunist government in
    South Vietnam. US leaders believed that if one
    country became communist, other countries in a
    region would likely do so as well.

39
  • The Vietnam War
  • For 30 years, under Presidents Truman,
    Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, the US
    provided military and economic support to South
    Vietnam to help it fight against the North
    Vietnamese Communists, who were seeking to unite
    Vietnam. The war dragged on, and support for it
    eroded as television brought the fighting into
    American homes, and college students nationwide
    protested US policy in Southeast Asia. In 1973
    the US and Vietnam signed a peace agreement
    ending the war. Two years later, the North
    Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam and reunified
    the country under a Communist government.

40
Pick an answer or answers!
41
The Vietnam War Memorial, Washington, DC
42
Answer
The Vietnam War
  • Half internationalism, half imperialism

Reason
  • The US believed it was stopping the spread of an
    evil system, but many Vietnamese and Americans
    felt that the US entered the Vietnam War for
    imperialistic reasons.

43
  • The Persian Gulf War
  • In August 1990 the president of Iraq, Saddam
    Hussein, ordered an invasion of Kuwait, Iraqs
    small, oil-rich neighbor. Husseins forces
    easily defeated the Kuwaiti army, and a few days
    later, Saddam announced that Iraq had annexed
    (extended the Iraqi border to include) Kuwait.
    US president George Bush, fearing that Husseins
    aggression threatened the security of the Middle
    East and global access to Middle Eastern oil,
    worked with the United Nations (UN) to put in
    place an economic boycott of Iraq.

44
  • The Persian Gulf War
  • The UN also promised to defend Saudi Arabia from
    attack and to mobilize an alliance of 28 nations
    to free Kuwait from Iraqi control, through force
    if necessary. When Hussein refused to withdraw
    from Kuwait, allied forces struck Iraq in January
    1991 in Operation Desert Storm. The operation
    began with extensive bombing raids on strategic
    Iraqi targets, after which allied ground forces
    drove the Iraqis from Kuwait and deep into Iraq.
    The Persian Gulf War lasted only 42 days, but
    cost an estimated 200,000 Iraqi lives and 240
    lives from the UN allied forces.

45
Pick an answer or answers!
46
Oilfields on Fire, Iraq
47
Answer
The Persian Gulf War
  • Collective security, half internationalism, half
    imperialism

Reason
  • The US worked with 28 nations to stop a foreign
    aggressor and to maintain global access to oil.

48
  • Peacekeeping in Bosnia
  • In 1989 communism collapsed in Eastern Europe.
    In Yugoslavia, ethnic and religious groups
    divided the formerly Communist country into
    several smaller republics. Serbia, the republic
    that had dominated Yugoslavia, wanted to preserve
    a unified country. When two other republics
    Slovenia and Croatia declared their
    independence in 1991, many Serbs living in those
    regions feared repression by the new governments.
    As ethnic tensions continued to rise, fierce
    fighting broke out among the Serbs, Croats, and
    Muslims in another republic, Bosnia.

49
  • Peacekeeping in Bosnia
  • The US pushed for an arms embargo (refusal to
    sell weapons) to Bosnia, which the UN passed in
    1991. The UN also sought to end the conflict by
    sending peacekeeping troops and humanitarian aid.
    Still, the fighting continued until mid-1995,
    when a NATO bombing campaign forced the
    well-armed Bosnian Serbs into peace talks.
    Hosted by the US in Dayton, Ohio, these talks
    produced a cease-fire agreement and the
    commitment of foreign peacekeeping troops,
    including thousands from the US. In 1998 US
    troops remained in Bosnia to maintain the peace.

50
Pick an answer or answers!
51
(No Transcript)
52
Answer
Peacekeeping in Bosnia
  • Collective security

Reason
  • The US worked through the UN to try to stop the
    bloodshed in Bosnia.
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