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Ch.19, Sec.1- The War Begins


Ch.19, Sec.1- The War Begins Lincoln Faces a Crisis By early March 1861 the federal troops at Fort Sumter were running low on supplies. Instead of ordering troops to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch.19, Sec.1- The War Begins

Ch.19, Sec.1- The War Begins
Lincoln Faces a Crisis
  • By early March 1861 the federal troops at Fort
    Sumter were running low on supplies. Instead of
    ordering troops to surrender, President Abraham
    Lincoln decided to resupply them. Before the
    supply ships arrived, South Carolina demanded
    that the Union troops leave the fort. The forts
    commander, Major Robert Anderson, refused to do
    so. On April 12, 1861, Confederate guns opened
    fire on the fort, starting the Civil War. After
    34 hours, Anderson had no choice but to
    surrender. Lincoln declared that the South was in
    rebellion and asked the state governors to
    provide 75,000 militiamen to help put down the

Choosing Sides
  • Slave states that had not joined the Confederacy
    had to choose sides. North Carolina, Tennessee,
    Virginia, and Arkansas joined the Confederacy
    soon after Lincolns request for troops.
    Richmond, Virginia became the Confederacys
    capital. 4 slave states did not secede Delaware,
    Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. These states
    were called border states. The new state of West
    Virginia also joined the Union in 1863.

The Volunteer Spirit
  • At the start of the war, the Union army had only
    16,000 troops. In the border states, members of
    the same family often joined opposing sides in
    the war. Lincolns wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, had
    four brothers who fought for the Confederacy.
  • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to earn
    a medical license, helped convince Lincoln to
    form the U.S. Sanitary Commission in June 1861.
    They sent bandages, medicines, and food to Union
    army camps and hospitals.

The North Versus the South
  • At the beginning of the war, the North had
    several key advantages over the South. The much
    larger population of the North provided more
    soldiers. The North had most of the nations
    factories and more shipyards. It also had a
    better network of railways, which allowed for
    more efficient transportation. Finally, the Union
    was able to raise more money to spend on the war.
  • The Confederacy also had advantages. The Souths
    military tradition provided it with many skilled
    officers. Also, the South needed only to defend
    itself until the North grew tired of the war.

The North Versus the South cont.
  • Union general Winfield Scott developed the
    Unions two-part strategy. He wanted to destroy
    the Souths economy through a naval blockade of
    southern seaports. Scott also wanted to gain
    control of the Mississippi River to divide the
    Confederacy and cut its communications. The South
    tried to use cotton diplomacy, which was based on
    the southern belief that the British government
    would support them because cotton was important
    to Great Britains textile industry. However, the
    British had a large supply of cotton stockpiled
    when the war began. They also got cotton from
    India and Egypt.

Sec.2- The War in the East
Two Armies Meet
  • The first major battle took place in July 1861.
    President Lincoln had General Irvin McDowell lead
    about 35,000 barely trained troops from
    Washington toward Richmond. The 2 armies met at
    Manassas Junction, Virginia. 35,000 Confederate
    troops were lined along Bull Run Creek led by
    General Thomas Stonewall Jackson. Jacksons
    example inspired other Confederate troops, who
    said There is Jackson standing like a stone
    wall. Fresh southern troops soon arrived,
    driving the Union army back to Washington. The
    Confederates might have captured the Union
    capital if they were not so tired and
    disorganized. The First Battle of Bull Run broke
    the Unions hopes of winning the war quickly and

More Battles in Virginia
  • Lincoln sent his new commander, General George B.
    McClellan to capture Richmond. By April 1862
    McClellan and a huge force were camped near
    Yorktown, Virginia. He didnt attack though
    because he thought his troops were outnumbered.
    This gave the Confederates time to strengthen
    Richmonds defenses. In early May, McClellan
    finally took Yorktown.
  • President Jefferson Davis put General Robert E.
    Lee in charge of the Confederate army in Virginia
    in June 1862. Lee had served in the Mexican War
    and led the federal troops that captured John
    Brown at Harpers Ferry. Lincoln even asked him to
    lead the Union forces in 1861. Although Lee was
    against slavery and secession, he was loyal to
    the South. When Virginia left the Union, Lee
    resigned from the U.S. Army and returned home.

More Battles in Virginia cont.
  • After scouting Union positions, Lee attacked on
    June 26, 1862. During the next week, the two
    armies fought five separate times in what came to
    be known as the Seven Days Battles. The
    Confederates suffered more than 20,000
    casualties, and the Union suffered nearly 16,000.
    However, Lee forced McClellan to retreat from the
    area around Richmond.
  • Lincoln then ordered General John Pope to advance
    directly on Richmond from Washington. This battle
    became known as the Second Battle of Bull Run.
    Caught off guard, Popes army fell apart. By the
    end of August 1862, Lee had pushed most of the
    Union forces out of Virginia. He then decided to
    take the war into the North.

The Battle of Antietam
  • Confederate leaders hoped a victory on northern
    soil might break the Unions spirit and convince
    European powers to aid the South. On September 4,
    1862, about 40,000 Confederate soldiers entered
    Maryland. Union soldiers had found a copy of
    Lees battle plan, which General McClellan used
    to plan a counterattack. On September 17, 1862,
    the armies met at Antietam Creek in Maryland. The
    Battle of Antietam lasted for hours, and by the
    end of the day, the Union had suffered more than
    12,000 casualties and the Confederates more than
    13,000. Antietam was the bloodiest single-day
    battle of the war, but the Union won a key
    victory. Antietam cost Lee many of his troops and
    stopped his northward advance. However, McClellan
    allowed Lee to retreat to Virginia. Two months
    later, Lincoln was tired of McClellans delays
    and he took the command in the East away from him.

The War at Sea
  • The Union navy blockaded the South, cutting off
    trade and hurting the economy. The blockade was
    hard to maintain because the Union navy had to
    patrol thousands of miles of coastline from
    Virginia to Texas. The South used small, fast
    ships called blockade runners to outrun the
    larger Union warships and reach trading ports.

The War at Sea cont.
  • The Confederacy began using a new type of warship
    called the ironclad, which was heavily armored
    with iron. The Confederates had turned a captured
    Union ship into an ironclad, renamed the
    Virginia. In March 1862, the ironclad sailed into
    Hampton Roads, Virginia, where Union ships
    guarded this waterway. The ironclad easily sank 2
    of the Unions wooden ships. The Union had
    already built their own ironclad as well, called
    the Monitor. When the Virginia returned to
    Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862, the Monitor was
    waiting. After several hours of fighting, neither
    ship was seriously damaged, but the Monitor
    forced the Virginia to withdraw, thus keeping the
    blockade going.

Sec.3- The War in the West
Western Strategy
  • Union strategy in the West focused on controlling
    the Mississippi River, which would allow the
    North to cut off eastern states of the
    Confederacy from sources of food production.
    Ulysses S. Grant was the most important figure in
    the war in the West. He had served in the Mexican
    War, and later resigned from the army. When the
    Civil War broke out, he quickly volunteered to
    serve with the Union Army. By September 1861,
    Lincoln made him a general.
  • On April 6, 1862, the Confederates began the
    Battle of Shiloh. Catching Grant by surprise,
    they pushed his army back. Grant ordered his
    troops to hold their ground. During the night,
    more Union soldiers arrived. On April 7, Grant
    began a counterattack. By that evening, the
    Confederates were in retreat, and the Union had
    won greater control of the Mississippi River
    Valley. The Battle of Shiloh was one of the first
    major battles of the war.

Fighting for the Mississippi River
  • Flag Officer David Farragut sailed past the forts
    guarding New Orleans. On April 24, 1862, he
    ordered his warships to advance through the
    Confederate gunfire. His ships arrived the next
    day, and New Orleans surrendered on April 29. He
    then continued up the Mississippi River and took
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi.
    All that was left to take was Vicksburg,
  • John C. Pemberton led the Confederate forces at
    Vicksburg. In the Spring of 1863, General Grant
    blocked southern forces from aiding Vicksburg. He
    then surrounded the city with his troops. The
    Siege of Vicksburg lasted about 6 weeks. As
    supplies ran out, the residents and soldiers in
    the city survived by eating horses, dogs, and
    rats. Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg on July 4,
    1863, giving the Union control of the Mississippi

The Far West
  • In August 1861, Confederate forces from Texas
    marched into New Mexico, but were defeated by the
    Union forces at Glorieta Pass, near Santa Fe, New
    Mexico. This ended Confederate hopes of
    controlling the Southwest.
  • The Confederates also tried to take Missouri, but
    were turned back when they tried to siege the
    federal arsenal at St. Louis in the summer of
    1861. In March 1862, Union forces and
    pro-Confederate Missourians met at the Battle of
    Pea Ridge in Arkansas. Some American Indians,
    mainly Cherokee, fought on the side of the
    Confederates hoping for greater independence than
    the Union had given. In addition, slavery was
    legal in Indian Territory, and some American
    Indians who were slaveholders supported the
    Confederacy. Despite being outnumbered, the Union
    forces won the Battle of Pea Ridge, giving the
    Union the upper hand in Missouri.

Sec.4- Life During the War
Freeing the Slaves
  • President Lincoln supported freeing the slaves if
    it would help the North win the war. He feared
    that northern prejudice against African-Americans
    might weaken support for the war if emancipation
    became a goal. He was afraid some northerners
    would consider slaves to be property that
    southerners had the right to keep. In addition,
    the Constitution did not give him the power to
    end slavery. Lincoln decided to issue a military
    order freeing slaves only in areas controlled by
    the Confederacy. Lincoln did not want to anger
    citizens in the border states. After the Battle
    of Antietam, on September 22, 1862, Lincoln
    called for all slaves in Confederate controlled
    areas to be freed. The Emancipation Proclamation
    went into effect on January 1, 1863. This loss of
    slave labor hurt the southern economy and the
    Confederate war effort. Many northern Democrats
    opposed the Emancipation Proclamation, wanting
    only to restore the Union, not end slavery.

African Americans and the War
  • Congress allowed the army to sign up African
    American volunteers as laborers in July 1862
    because the Union needed soldiers. The War
    Department also gave contrabands, or escaped
    slaves, the right to join the Union army in South
    Carolina. By the spring of 1863, African American
    units were fighting in the field with the Union
    army. The 54th Massachusetts Infantry consisted
    mostly of free African Americans. The 54th became
    the most famous African American unit of the war.
    About 180,000 African Americans served with the
    Union army during the war. For most of the war,
    African American soldiers received less pay than
    white soldiers. They were usually led by white
    officers. They also faced greater danger from
    Confederate troops, who often killed African
    American prisoners of war or sold them into

Problems in the North
  • Northerners were growing upset by the length of
    the war and the increasing number of casualties.
    A group of northern Democrats led by Clement L.
    Vallandigham began to speak out against the war.
    War supporters called them Copperheads. Lincoln
    believed they were a threat to the war effort, so
    he suspended the right of Habeas Corpus, or the
    Constitutional protection against unlawful
    imprisonment. By ignoring this protection, Union
    officials could put their enemies in jail without
    either evidence or trial. This angered the
  • More debate arose in March 1863, when Congress
    passed a law allowing men to be drafted into
    military service. Wealthy people could legally
    buy their way out of military service. In July
    1863, riots targeting African Americans and draft
    officials broke out in New York City. Many of the
    rioters were poor immigrants afraid of losing
    their jobs to freed African Americans.

Southern Struggles
  • In the spring of 1863, food riots broke out in
    several southern cities, including Richmond.
    Southern officials ordered local newspapers not
    to mention these riots because they feared the
    news would embarrass the South and encourage the
    North to keep fighting.
  • There was also controversy among southerners over
    their new draft law, approved by Davis in 1862
    despite much criticism. One problem was that the
    southern draft did not apply to men who held many
    slaves. This angered poor southerners who
    generally held few if any slaves. They then began
    calling this rich mans war, poor mans fight.
    Some southerners even took up arms against
    Confederate officials.

Life on the Home Front
  • Women played an important role in providing
    medical care for soldiers. Dorthea Dix headed
    more than 3,000 women who served as paid nurses
    in the Union army. Clara Barton worked as a
    volunteer, organizing the collection of medicine
    and supplies for delivery to Union troops on the
    battlefield. Her work formed the basis for what
    would become the American Red Cross. About twice
    as many Civil War soldiers died of disease than
    died in combat.

Sec.5- The Tide of the War Turns
The Battle of Gettysburg
  • In the Battle of Chancellorsville, Jackson was
    accidentally shot by his own troops. Doctors cut
    off his left arm to try to save his life. Jackson
    still got worse, and he died a few days after the
    battle ended. Lee said He has lost his left arm,
    but I have lost my right.
  • The victory at Chancellorsville and
    Fredericksburg encouraged Lee to launch another
    offensive into Union territory. His goals were to
    break the Norths will to fight and capture
    needed supplies for his army. He hoped another
    victory would turn the war in favor of the
    Confederacy. When Lee went to Gettysburg,
    Pennsylvania, he was unaware the Union forces
    were just northwest of the town. The Battle of
    Gettysburg began on July 1, 1863, with about
    75,000 Confederate troops against about 90,000
    Union troops.

The Battle of Gettysburg cont.
  • On July 2, Lee ordered an attack on the left side
    of the Union line. The bold charge of Union
    Colonel Joshua Chamberlins troops at Little
    Round Top turned back the Confederates. Then
    General George Meade placed more soldiers on the
    Union line. Lee planned to rush the center of the
    Union line. Three divisions of Confederate
    soldiers were to carry this out. General George
    Pickett commanded the largest unit. Late that
    afternoon, about 14,000 men took part in
    Picketts Charge up Cemetery Ridge. The attack
    was a disaster. Fewer than half of Picketts
    troops reached the top of the ridge. All those
    who reached the Union wall were captured or
    killed. Only about 6,500 men returned to the
    Confederate rear.

A Turning Point
  • Lee retreated from Gettysburg on July 4, and it
    was the turning point of the war. Lees troops
    would never again launch an attack on northern
    soil. This took place the same day as the fall of
    Vicksburg. The Union lost about 23,000 soldiers
    in this battle to the Confederates 28,000.
  • President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg
    Address on November 19, 1863. This is one of the
    most famous speeches in American history. He
    spoke of the importance of liberty, equality, and
    democratic ideals. He reminded listeners that the
    war was being fought to protect these principles.
    Lincoln dedicated himself and the rest of the
    North to winning the war and preserving the

Grants Drive to Richmond
  • From May through June in 1864, the two armies
    fought a series of battles in northern and
    central Virginia. Grant was now the head of the
    Union forces and was ordered to capture Richmond.
    These series of battles was called the Wilderness
    Campaign with about 100,000 Union men against
    70,000 Confederates. The Battle of Cold Harbor
    was Grants worst defeat of the campaign, ending
    Grants plans to advance to Richmond. Union
    forces suffered twice as many casualties as the
    Confederates in the Wilderness Campaign, but
    Grant knew Lee was getting low on troops. Grant
    was winning the war, but not capturing Richmond
    was discouraging Lincoln.

Sherman Strikes the South
  • General William Tecumseh Shermans goal was to
    take Atlanta. The Confederate troops retreated as
    Sherman held Atlanta under siege. Atlanta fell to
    Sherman on September 2, 1864. Much of the city
    was destroyed. Sherman ordered the residents to
    leave. This victory led to Lincoln getting
    re-elected. Sherman then waged total war in his
    quest to take Savannah, or destroying both
    civilian and military resources. Sherman felt
    this would ruin the Souths economy and ability
    to fight. He ordered his troops to destroy
    railways, bridges, livestock, and other
    resources. They burned plantations and freed
    slaves. He reached Savannah on December 10, 1864.

The South Surrenders
  • On April 2, 1865, Lee was forced to retreat from
    Richmond. By the second week of April 1865, Grant
    had surrounded Lees army and demanded its
    surrender. Lee hoped to join the remaining
    Confederates in North Carolina, but Grant cut off
    his escape. Trapped in the small town of
    Appomattox Courthouse, Lee signed the surrender
    documents on April 9, 1865. Almost 620,000
    Americans lost their lives in the 4 years of
    fighting. It was the most costly conflict in
    American history.