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MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD (DCE5130) SEMESTER TWO 2015/2016 F2F III (23 APRIL 2016)

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Title: MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD (DCE5130) SEMESTER TWO 2015/2016 F2F III (23 APRIL 2016)


1
MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD(DCE5130)
SEMESTER TWO 2015/2016F2F III (23 APRIL 2016)
2
OBJECTIVES
  • At the end of this course, the students are able
    to
  • Identify and elaborate key elements of his/her
    own culture and other cultures in Malaysia/own
    country
  • Analyze and relate key elements of culture
    (cultural dimension) to the intracultural,
    intercultural, and crosscultural Malaysian
    workplace
  • Discuss and provide solution to issues and
    challenges in working across cultures,

3

SYNOPSIS
  • This course emphasises the influence of
    multiculture on human resource development, the
    sensitivity of multiculture on labour force in
    Malaysia and at the international level,
    cross-cultural and intercultural management of
    international corporations).

4
EVALUATION OF MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN
HRD(DCE5130)
  • 1. Assignment 1 15
  • 2. Assignment 2 (Article Review)15
  • 3. Assignment 3 15
  • 4. Assignment 4 (Case Study)
  • (Group) 25
  • 3. Final exam 30

5
ASSIGNMENT 1  
  • What is your understanding of your own value in
    your culture?
  • Identify your core value (can be more than one
    values).
  • Describe the value/s by using the key elements of
    culture (underlying assumption, value, symbol,
    ritual and hero). The assignment should be based
    on your own observation and experience. Some
    references may be useful.
  • (At least 10 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 2nd Face to Face

6
ASSIGNMENT 2 (Individual)
  • Search for ONE research article related to
    multicultural influences in HRD/organization.
  • Review and discuss your chosen article based on
    your understanding of cultural dimensions. Please
    read and compare with the following article
    (given in the VODPPL)
  • FACILITATING HARMONY IN DIVERSITY USING
    DELIGHTS, PUZZLES AND IRRITATIONS TO MEET THE
    CHALLENGE OF DIVERSITY (provided in the file or
    at www.amauta-international.com/iaf2000/Abdullah2
    .PDF)
  • (At least 3 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 3rd Face to Face

7
ASSIGNMENT 3  
  • How Malaysian manager manage the organization?
    (intracultural or intercultural organization?
  • Select one or two cases/activities on how manager
    manage the organization from cultural perpective
    (in terms of leadership, communication,
    motivating, managing conflict etc.) The
    assignment can be either based on your own
    experience or others or a research article.
  • (At least 10 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 3rd Face to Face

8
ASSIGNMENT 4CASE STUDY (GROUP ASSIGMENT)
  • How foreigners manage and need to know about
    managing in Malaysia (Cross-cultural
    Organization)?
  • The students are expected to do a series of
    interview the foreigners (particular from western
    countries, Japan, Korea, Taiwan or Africas) who
    worked in Malaysian organizations (company, NGO,
    government).
  • At least three foreigners of managerial level
    should be interviewed.
  • Focus of the paper is how foreigners manage the
    organization from the cultural perspective, the
    issues and problems, their expectation,
    misunderstanding, etc.
  • (At least 15 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date Final Exam for Master Program

9
FINAL EXAM
  •  Focus will be given on the ability of students
    to analyse key dimensions/elements of own culture
    and other cultures, and relate and propose
    solutions to issues and challenges in the
    multicultural workplace contexts.

10
COURSE CONTENT
Part 1 Key elements of My Own Culture
and other cultures in Malaysia
Part
2 Relating at the intra cultural, intercultural,
cross cultural
Malaysian workplace
4 PARTS .
Part 3 Issues and challenges in working across
cultures, namely - when Malaysians go abroad
to work - when foreigners come to live and
work in Malaysia.
11
Part 3 Issues and challenges in working across
cultures, namely- when Malaysians go abroad
to work - when foreigners come to live and
work in Malaysia.
COURSE CONTENT
.
o An awareness and understanding of values and
underlying assumptions of people from
different cultures in business settings
(Americans, Japanese, Australians, Canadians,
Germans, Swedes, etc) o A knowledge of work
practices as observed in different cultures
concept of time, completed staff work, ethics,
work relationships, protocol, etiquette and
sensitivities as observed by each culture o
Acquire appropriate skills, strategies and
techniques to interact with the
host culture for business and social purposes o
Issues and challenges of international
management o Managing cross cultural
interactions in business settings
12
PROJECT PAPER/CASE STUDY
  • How foreigners manage and need to know about
    managing in Malaysia (Cross-cultural
    Organization)?
  • The students are expected to do a series of
    interview the foreigners (particular from western
    countries, Japan, Korea, Taiwan or Africas) who
    worked in Malaysian organizations (company, NGO,
    government).
  • At least three foreigners of managerial level
    should be interviewed.
  • Focus of the paper is how foreigners manage the
    organization from the cultural perspective, the
    issues and problems, their expectation,
    misunderstanding, etc.

13
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Americans
Symbols Eagle - freedom, strength,
individuality, Flag. Big Mac, Disney,
Coke Rituals Holidays. Independence Day, Thanks
giving, Going to Church on Sundays Heroes Foun
ding fathers, Martin Luther King, Athletes,
Entertainers Values Task orientation,
Individualism, Punctuality, Money,
Privacy, Competitiveness, Underlying
assumptions Mans relationship with Nature
Control, Mastery Mans relationship with people
Individualism, Task driven, Monochronic time,
Low context, Guilt, Equality Mans
relationship with God Secular

14
CULTURE OF ORGANIZATION
  • Consists of five cultural dimensions
  • VALUES form the heart of the org- have to
    communicate to all employees if incongruent
    with their culture managers takes long time to
    internalized them.

15
TYPES OF CULTURAL INTERFACE AT THE Malaysian
WORKPLACE
INTRA CULTURAL Within one ethnic group
Kelantan library
INTER CULTURAL With different ethnic groups
within a country e.g. Malays, Chinese Indians
and Others National library
CROSS CULTURAL Between two different
cultures e.g. Malaysian and Americans Lincoln
library
16

VALUE ORIENTATIONS AT THE MALAYSIAN WORKPLACE
Malays Chinese Indians Malays and
Chinese and Indians and Others Malaysians and
Anglo- Americans
Joking relationship Closeness Polite,
friendly Simple Indirect
INTRA CULTURAL
Rapport building Code switching Common grounds
and history Share experience and meaning
INTER CULTURAL
CROSS CULTURAL
Direct and to the point Proper English Formal
English Specificity Punctuality,
Timeliness Efficiency, Effectiveness
CROSS CULTURAL
17
MALAYSIAN THEMES EFFECTING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
Jaga Maruah
(Preserving Face)
Budi Bahasa (Language of
Character)
Mesyuwarah Gotong Royong
(Consensus-seeking and
Cooperation)
Tolong Satu Sama Lain (To Help One
Another)
Kawan (Member System)
18
Implications of understanding our Malaysian
cultural dimensions for organization
1. Harmony is more important than control
2. More relationship-oriented than task driven
  • 3. More hierarchical than egalitarian

4. Driven by shame than guilt
5. High Context form of communication
6. Polychronic time than monochronic
7. A More Related (we) Self than separated (I)
8. Religious than secular
19
MANAGEMENT PRACTICE- MULTICULTURAL WORKPLACE
  • Leading
  • Communicating
  • Motivating
  • Making decisions
  • Counseling guidance
  • Managing conflict
  • etc

20
MANAGEMENT PRACTICE- MULTICULTURAL WORKPLACE
  • Leading Face, nurturing group, relationship,
    TOWKAY, TUAN, SMALLMAN (humble), Caring
  • Communicating - Face, polite, cooperation
  • Making decisions FACE, respect for age, harmony
  • Managing conflict non-confrontational, face,
    respect for others

21
LEADERSHIP
22
Admirable Qualities of Leader
  • Yang mulia (righteous)
  • Berbudi bahasa (humble well mannered)
  • Baik tutur bahasa (say pleasant things)
  • Murah hati (willing to spend money)
  • Berusaha (industrious)
  • Tajam gigih (great alertness)
  • Empathy, humility, tactfulness
  • Working unobtrusively enlisting the assistance
    and moral support of others (imam)
  • Warak alim
  • Etc.. (may refer to page 73)

23
Type of Leader Way of Expressing Budi
Type of sender Qualities in sender Recipients behaviour
Towkay Busness man Generous Considerate Caring Acceptance Grateful
Tuan Power based Just Fair Sincere Appreciative Grateful
Small man Humility Trustworthy Empathetic Harmony Feel obligated Reciprocated in kind
24
MOTIVATING
  • Malays are motivated by their affiliation to
    groups, families individuals.
  • They would respond better if they could see
    benefits not just to the company but also to
    their family, community, nation and religion.

25
MOTIVATING
26
COMMUNICATION
Good manners Indirectness subtle Tactfull Holistic Give and take Gentle Softness (vocal, tone) Proper decorum Politeness (BERBUDI BAHASA) Diplomatic Less disclosure (face saving jaga maruah)
27
  • HOW OTHERS SEE US
  • DELIGHTS
  • Food, eating and entertaining
  • The Malaysian handshake
  • The concept of working in teams
  • Ability to empathize due to diversity
  • Family values are still intact
  • Malaysians proudly fly their flags in their
    public buildings, private homes and private
    transportation

28
PUZZLES What is the concept of face in the
East versus the West? Making decisions can
take a long time. Why? Malaysians tend to
wait for their bosses to make decisions and give
them directions before they act. Why are
they so slow to move? Meetings tend to be
long winded and decisions take time. Why are they
not bothered about tim Datelines are not
strictly adhered to. Why is it so? Building
relationships is so important at meetings. It
takes time fora meeting to get started.
Why do they call for meetings? They
say Yes but when they cannot meet the
commitment theynever explain why theycannot
fulfil their earlier promise.Why is this so?
There is a blaming syndrome when something goes
wrong. Why? How do we convey negative
feedback to Asians? What is the indirect and
direct way of speaking?
What is the polite system that we have to
understand and respect?
29
Core Value of British
  • Openness and directness in face-to-face
    discussion
  • If you dont know, please say dont know
    (uncertainty avoidance)
  • Recommended to Malaysian to adapt this value in
    business activities but have to be sensitive and
    responsive to Malaysian cultures

30
Leadership
  • Criteria that a leader should have is leading
    from the front likes military
  • Communication skills is important to deliver
    clear instruction including the objectives and
    time frame (what, why, when).
  • Expected subordinates to work in instruction but
    need to be sensitive to the way of instructing
    and asking
  • As a leader, it is advisable that not to scold
    subordinates in public (preserving face)

31
Communications
  • Direct and explicit
  • When conveying negative news, direct approaches
    are more better and efficient
  • Equality is important than hierarchy
  • Prefer address first-name basis, even in the
    formal meeting
  • All is same level, so that discussion can be more
    openness and directness

32
Motivation
  • Although working is important but also need to
    spend time to relax, eg. travel
  • Spectrum of reward vs. punishment systems at
    Malaysia is very wide and broad
  • Building relationship with subordinates is
    important to motivate them to work but the
    relationship is not in deep and personal basis.

33
Managing Crises and Problems
  • Direct and explicit communication is important to
    convey clear instruction
  • Being open and direct
  • Prepare to listen and accept others suggestion
    where appropriate and relevant in making decision
  • Setting clear objectives with time frame

34
Issues and Challenges of Working Across Cultures
  • Need to be always aware and alert of the ways of
    doing things at Malaysia
  • Issues of religion and hierarchy
  • Ways of communication (indirect, passing the buck
    or play taichi)
  • Languages

35
Expectation for Malaysian Workers
  • Values that found from Malaysian are respectful
    and helpful
  • Malaysian are encourage but not a force
  • to be more openness and directness where
    appropriate and applicable
  • not be shy in working relationship
  • be on time

36
Part 4 Key concepts and theories in the field of
cross cultural/multicultural mgt.
Globalization Guilt Harmony
Hierarchy Homogeneity Indigenization
Individualism Industrialization
Ingroup-outgroup Intercultural Internalization I
ntracultural Locus of control
Localization Modernity Modernization
Monochronic time Multicultural Particularism Po
lychronic time Power distance
Accommodation Acculturation Affirmative
action Assimilation Assumptions Attribution
theory Collectivism Colonization Consensus
Context Low/ High Control Corporate Cross
cultural Culture Diversity
Egalitarian Emic-Etic Ethnocentricism Face
saving
Related self Relationship orientation Rituals Ro
le models/heroes Secular Sensitivity Separate
d self Shame Socialization Symbolic
conformity Symbols Task orientation Uncertain
ty avoidance Universalism Values Westernizat
ion
37
CULTURAL SURGERY Culture can be both a tool and
a trap. By understanding the values and
assumptions of our culture, managers will be
able to know what to


Very Productive
STRENGTHEN respect
NURTURE develop
Nurture own local indigenous values and
assumptions which can be harnessed to drive
productive work practices in order to be globally
responsive
Shared work practices which we already do well
and are supportive of productive work habits
Work Output
DISCARD ignore
SURFACE and REPLACE reinvent
Not so productive
Discard practices (symbols, rituals) which when
taken to the extreme tend to create dysfunction-
waste time, energy and block work efficiency
(pathology)
Surface existing values and assumptions which are
unproductive and has no value added benefit
Conscious
Unconscious
Mental state
_at_asma
If a particular value is taken to the extreme it
risks creating a dysfunction, a pathology
38
FINAL EXAM
  •  Focus will be given on the ability of students
    to analyse key dimensions/elements of own culture
    and other cultures, and relate and propose
    solutions to issues and challenges in the
    multicultural workplace contexts.

39
FOKUS PEMBELAJARAN
  1. Amalan pengurusan yang berasaskan budaya
    Malaysia(Dimensi budaya) -Kebaikan/kekuatan
    Boleh diperbaiki - strategi
  2. Lima Dimensi budaya dan perkaitan antara dimensi
  3. Amalan tempat kerja - kes
  4. Budaya masyarakat individu dan kaitanya dengan
    tempat kerja
  5. Pandangan orang luar terhadap budaya kerja
    Malaysia

40
FOKUS PEMBELAJARAN
  • 6. Konsep penting
  • Komunikasi dalam organisasi
  • Kepimpinan dalam organisasi
  • Malu dan Rasa Bersalah
  • Tugas dan Hubungan
  • Konteks Komunikasi Tinggi
  • Intercultural dan crosscultural Organizations
  • Motivasi dalam organisasi
  • Dimensi Hieraki
  • Hormat orang tua
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