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Title: LIFE%20AT%20THE%20TURN%20OF%20THE%2020TH%20CENTURY


1
LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY
  • THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA

2
Warm-up
  • Skim through pages 298-302, what are the
    technological advances shown in the photos?
  • Which of these advances do you think had the
    greatest impact on life at the turn of the
    century? Why?
  • What are some changes that could be made in
    modern American cities to make them more livable?

3
SCIENCE AND URBAN LIFE
  • By the turn of the 20th century, four out of ten
    Americans lived in cities
  • In response to urbanization, technological
    advances began to meet communication,
    transportation, and space demands

Artist Annie Bandez
4
SKYSCRAPERS
  • Skyscrapers emerged after two critical
    inventions elevators steel skeletons that bear
    weight
  • Famous examples include Daniel Burnhams
    Flatiron Building in NYC, Louis Sullivans
    Wainwright Building in St. Louis
  • The skyscraper was Americas greatest
    contribution to architecture
  • solved the issue of how to best use limited and
    expensive space

Flatiron Building - 1902
5
  • Flatiron and Wainwright Buildings Turn to page
    299.
  • What urban improvements are visible in the
    picture?
  • Why do you think the flatiron building has a
    triangular shape?

6
ELECTRIC TRANSIT
  • Changes in transportation allowed cities to
    spread outward
  • By the turn of the century, intricate networks of
    electric streetcars also called trolley cars
    ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown
    offices stores
  • Richmond Virginia, first city to electrify its
    transit
  • People no longer have to walk to destination

7
ELS AND SUBWAYS
  • Congestion leads to modifications
  • A few large cities moved their streetcars far
    above street level, creating elevated or el
    trains
  • Other cities built subways by moving their rail
    lines underground
  • Leads to annexation and growth of large cities

8
BRIDGES PARKS
  • Steel-cable suspension bridges, like the Brooklyn
    Bridge, also brought cities sections closer
  • John Roebling wanted to provide recreational
    opportunities on bridge
  • Some urban planners sought to include landscaped
    areas parks
  • Frederick Law Olmsted was instrumental in drawing
    up plans for Central park, NYC

Central Park is an oasis among Manhattans
skyscrapers
9
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10
Quick read page 300 Garden City
  • Why might nature and wildlife be important to
    city life?
  • Can you identify a city or town that displays
    aspects of Howards plan?

11
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12
CITY PLANNING CHICAGO
  • Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of
    Chicagos lakefront from swampy wasteland to
    elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan
  • Today Chicagos lakefront is one of the most
    beautiful shorelines in North America

13
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14
NEW TECHNOLOGIES
  • New developments in communication brought the
    nation closer
  • Advances in printing, aviation, and photography
    helped speed the transfer of information
  • Key Ideas
  • Airplanes revolutionize communications as well as
    transportation
  • Advances in paper and printing spur the
    publication of newspapers, books, and magazines,
    while better photography enhances journalism

15
A REVOLUTION IN PRINTING
  • By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly
    90
  • American mills began to produce huge quantities
    of cheap paper from wood pulp
  • Electrical web-perfecting presses printed on both
    sides of paper at the same time, invented by
    William Bullock
  • Faster production and lower costs made newspapers
    and magazines more affordable (most papers sold
    for 1 cent)
  • Ottomar Mergenthaler invents the Linotype Machine
  • Speeding up typesetting

16
AIRPLANES
  • In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and
    Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and
    aircrafts
  • They commissioned a four-cylinder internal
    combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a
    biplane
  • On December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12
    seconds covering 120 feet
  • Within two years the brothers were making 30
    minute flights
  • By 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights
    regularly

Actual photo of Wright Brothers first flight
12/17/03
17
PHOTOGRAPHY EXPLOSION
  • Before 1880, photography was a professional
    activity
  • Subjects could not move and the film had to be
    developed immediately
  • George Eastman invented lighter weight equipment
    and more versatile film
  • In 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak Camera
  • The 25 camera came with 100-picture roll of film

1888 Kodak
18
Turn to page 302
  • Read the Key Player section on George Eastman
  • Why do you think Eastmans slogan and other sales
    methods were so effective with consumers?

19
Key Ideas section 1
  • Technology helps cities grow both upward and
    outward
  • The growth of cities prompts the new science of
    urban planning
  • Airplanes revolutionize communications as well as
    transportation
  • Advances in paper and printing spur the
    publication of newspapers, books, magazines,
    while better photography greatly enhances
    journalism

20
Final Thought for 8.1
  • Turn-of-the-century technological advances
    spurred the growth of Americas cities and
    improved both transportation and communications.

21
Start-up 8.2
  • Open your book to page 304
  • What two trends does the graph show?
  • What generalization can you make about education
    or illiteracy between 1870 and 1920?
  • How might an educational system help a nation
    meet its social needs?

22
SECTION 2 EXPANDING PUBLIC EDUCATION
  • Between 1865 and 1895, states passed laws
    requiring 12 to 16 weeks of annual education for
    students ages 8-14,
  • However, the curriculum was poor and the teachers
    were usually not qualified
  • However, the number of kindergartens expanded
    from 200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900

23
HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SOARS
  • High schools expanded their curriculum to include
    science, civics and social studies
  • By 1900 500,000 teen-agers were enrolled in high
    schools

Elroy High School Photo 1906
24
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
  • African Americans were mostly excluded from
    secondary education
  • In 1890 less than 1 attended high school
  • By 1910 that figured had reached only 3

African American school in the south about 1920
25
Key Ideas
  • States try to improve and expand education to
    produce good citizens and skilled workers
  • High schools emerge as industrial work demands
    more educated workers
  • Discriminatory educational policy deny most
    African Americans equal education opportunities.

26
EDUCATION FOR IMMIGRANTS
  • Unlike African Americans, immigrants were
    encouraged to go to school
  • Most immigrants sent their children to public
    schools
  • Also, thousands of adult immigrants attended
    night schools to learn English
  • Turn to page 304 answer skill builder question
    with a partner

27
Key Ideas
  • Public Schools and employers attempt to
    Americanize immigrants
  • Some immigrants resist the pressure to abandon
    their native cultures.
  • Catholic Schools start to emerge

28
EXPANDING HIGHER ED
  • In 1900, less than 3 of Americas youth attended
    college
  • Between 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more
    than quadrupled
  • Professional schools were established for law and
    medicine

29
Key Ideas
  • Higher education greatly expands at the turn of
    the century, drawing students from mainly upper
    and middle class backgrounds
  • The college curriculum changes to suit the new
    technological age

30
Question
  • How can the United States solve the issue of
    inequality between the races, using education as
    a tool? Meaning what would be the best way to
    help breakdown the wall of racism and inequality?

31
AFRICAN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES
  • After the Civil War, thousands of African
    Americans pursued higher education despite being
    excluded from white institutions
  • African Americans founded Howard, Fisk, and
    Tuskegee Universities (founded by Booker T.
    Washington)
  • W.E.B. Dubois founded the Niagara Movement, which
    sought liberal arts educations for all blacks
  • Proposes the Talented 10th
  • 1900 out of 9.2million, only 3880 graduated
    from college.
  • 1910 5 of whites in college, less than 1/3 of
    1 of African Americans
  • Booker T Washington believed racism would end
    opens Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
  • Trains mainly teachers and trades.

W.E.B. Dubois
http//www.biography.com/people/web-du-bois-927992
4
32
Booker T. Washington
  • No race can prosper till it learns that there is
    as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing
    a poem

http//www.biography.com/people/booker-t-washingto
n-9524663
33
Key Idea
  • African Americans establish colleges of their own
    to overcome their exclusion from most white
    schools.

34
PROMOTING FINE ARTS
  • By 1900, free circulating Public libraries
    numbered in the thousands
  • By 1900, most major cities had art galleries
  • In the early 20th century, the Ashcan School of
    American Art painted urban life mainly focused
    on urban poverty and the working class
  • Robert Henri main artist
  • Art Galleries and librarires called Poor Mans
    University

Thomas Eakins was one of the main artists of the
time. He embraced realism an artistic school
that aimed at portraying real life even in its
grittier forms
35
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36
POPULAR FICTION
  • Dime novels were popular inexpensive
  • Demand increases as literacy rates rise.
  • Most of these focused on adventure tales and
    heroes of the west
  • Some readers preferred a more realistic portrayal
    from authors Mark Twain, Jack London, and Willa
    Cather

37
Key Ideas
  • The expansion of education broadens Americans
    cultural horizons, with art galleries, libraries,
    and museums making culture available to more
    people
  • Many turn- of-the-century artists and writers
    embrace social realism, attempting to portray
    life as it is really lived.
  • Increased literacy boosts sales of dime novels
    and other light fiction.

38
Closing Thought
  • Education, which expanded to train the work force
    and teach good American citizenship, also led to
    new cultural achievements.

39
Warm-up
  • Turn to page 311 and read the Historical
    Spotlight section
  • How did Washington believe equality should be
    gained?
  • How did DuBoiss view differ from Washingtons?
  • Have you ever been unfairly discriminated against?

http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/bf10_vid_booke
rt/
40
SECTION 3 SEGREGATION AND DISCRIMINATION
  • By the turn of the 20th century, Southern States
    had adopted a broad system of legal
    discrimination
  • Southern Whites regain power after reconstruction
  • African Americans had to deal with voting
    restrictions, Jim Crow laws, Supreme Court
    set-backs, and physical violence

41
WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION?
  • Is the treatment or consideration of, or making a
    distinction in favor of or against, a person or
    thing based on the group, class, or category to
    which that person or thing belongs rather than on
    individual merit
  • Discrimination involves
  • Beliefs "This group of people is inferior
    because"
  • Emotions "I hate this group of people."
  • Actions "I will deny opportunity/hurt/kill
    members of this group."

42
VOTING RESTRICTIONS
  • All Southern states imposed new voting
    restrictions and denied legal equality to African
    Americans
  • Literacy test
  • Poll tax
  • Grandfather clause
  • January 1. 1867
  • Supreme Court no action
  • United States v Reese 1867

43
JIM CROW LAWS
  • Southern states passed segregation laws to
    separate white and black people in public and
    private facilities
  • These laws came to be known as Jim Crow Laws,
    named after an old minstrel song
  • Racial segregation was put into effect in
    schools, hospitals, parks, and transportation
    systems throughout the South

44
http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/bf10_vid_whowa
sjim/
45
Minstrel show ads, New York, 1847 and 1848. The
minstrel show was a unique American art form that
flourished in the North in the 1830s and 1840s.
The content was racist and featured actors in
blackface spoofing darkies.
46
Jim Crow Lincoln set the Negro free Why is he
still in slavery? Why is he still in slavery?
It's JIM CROW This is a land we call our
own, Why does the Negro ride alone? Why does the
Negro ride alone? It's JIM CROW When it's time
to go to the poll Why does the Negro stay at
home? Why does the Negro stay at home? It's JIM
CROW Freedom for all, it is said Free to
suffer 'til he's dead Free to suffer 'til he's
dead And JIM CROW If we believe in liberty
Lets put an end to slavery Lets put an end to
slavery And JIM CROW 1942 protest song
The name Jim Crow was first used in 1832 for an
exaggerated black character in a minstrel show.
It quickly caught on as an offensive racial
slur. By the end of the 19th century, it had
taken on a different meaning, and was used to
describe the segregationist regimen that had
spread throughout the South.
47
Black Codes Jim Crow laws
Southern states passed racist laws designed to
undermine African Americans new legal rights.
Many former Confederate officials were elected to
state government positions, where they passed a
series of laws known as the Black Codes. These
laws created the foundation for the legal
segregation of public facilities and the
treatment of African Americans as second-class
citizens throughout the South.
48
  • EXAMPLES OF JIM CROW LAWS
  • Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or
    corporations, who or which furnish meals to
    passengers at station restaurants or station
    eating houses, in times limited by common
    carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said
    meals to white and colored passengers in the same
    room, or at the same table, or at the same
    counter. South Carolina
  • Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable
    between the white and colored schools, but shall
    continue to be used by the race first using them.
    North Carolina
  • Prisons The warden shall see that the white
    convicts shall have separate apartments for both
    eating and sleeping from the Negro convicts.
    Mississippi
  • Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people to
    frequent any park owned or maintained by the city
    for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white
    persons...and unlawful for any white person to
    frequent any park owned or maintained by the city
    for the use and benefit of colored persons.
    Georgia
  • Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or
    allow to be buried, any colored persons upon
    ground set apart or used for the burial of white
    persons. Georgia
  • Nurses No person or corporation shall require any
    white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in
    hospitals, either public or private, in which
    Negro men are placed. Alabama
  • Intermarriage All marriages of white persons with
    Negroes, Mulattos, Mongolians, or Malaya
    hereafter contracted in the State of Wyoming are
    and shall be illegal and void. Wyoming

49
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
The Supreme Court ruled that racially segregated
facilities did not violate the equal protection
clause of the 14th Amendment. In 1890, Louisiana
passed a statute providing "that all railway
companies carrying passengers in their coaches in
this state shall provide equal but separate
accommodations for the white and colored
races..." The penalty for sitting in the wrong
compartment was either a fine of 25 or 20 days
in jail. Homer Plessy, a 30-year old shoemaker,
was jailed for sitting in the white" car of the
East Louisiana Railroad in an intentional protest
of the law. Plessy was 7/8 white and 1/8 black.
The Louisiana law still considered him black, and
therefore required him to sit in the "colored"
car.
Plessy went to court and argued that the Separate
Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Amendments to the Constitution.
50
PLESSY v. FERGUSON
  • Eventually a legal case reached the U.S. Supreme
    Court to test the constitutionality of
    segregation
  • 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court
    ruled that the segregation of races was legal and
    did not violate the 14th Amendment
  • Establishes the doctrine of separate but equal

http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/bf09_vid_pless
y/
51
(No Transcript)
52
Key Ideas
  • White southerners institute voting restrictions
    and segregation laws, reducing African Americans
    to second-class citizens
  • In Plessy v. Fergusson in 1896, the Supreme Court
    made separate but equal the law of the land.
    In practice the separation was enforced, but the
    equality was not.

53
Question
  • How would you have reacted to the Jim Crow laws?
  • How could these laws have been fought?

54
RACE RELATIONS - 1900
  • African Americans faced legal discrimination as
    well as informal rules and customs
  • Racial etiquette
  • Meant to humiliate these rules included whites
    never shaking the hand of an African America,
    they had to yield the sidewalk to whites, blacks
    also had to remove their hats in the presence of
    whites

55
VIOLENCE
  • African Americans who did not follow the racial
    etiquette could face severe punishment or death
  • Between 1882-1900, more than 2,500 black men and
    women were shot, burned, or lynched
  • Lynching peaked in the 1880s and 90s but
    continued well into the 20th century
  • Ida B. Wells was a crusader for equal rights and
    to stop this form of violence.

http//www.teachersdomain.org/asset/bf09_vid_antil
ynch/
56
MAJOR AREAS OF LYNCHING
57
DISCRIMINATION IN THE NORTH
  • While most African Americans lived in the
    segregated South, many blacks had migrated to the
    North in hopes of better jobs equality
  • However, the North had its own brand of racism as
    blacks got low paying jobs and lived in
    segregated neighborhoods
  • New York riot 1900 example of growing tension

58
Key Ideas
  • African Americans face segregation and
    discrimination everywhere, especially in the
    south
  • In the struggle for equality, Booker T Washington
    urges a gradual approach, while W.E.B. Du Bois
    demands full equality immediately
  • Crusaders like Ida Wells fight against the
    violence that confronts African Americans accused
    of violating the racial etiquette.

59
DISCRIMINATION IN THE WEST
  • Discrimination in the west was most often
    directed against Mexican and Asian immigrants
  • Mexicans were often forced in Debt Peonage a
    system of forced labor due to debt
  • Asians were increasingly excluded from mainstream
    society
  • Exclusion Act of 1882

Anti-Asian Cartoon
60
Key Ideas
  • In the West, nonwhite immigrants such as the
    Mexican s and Chinese fall victim to
    discrimination
  • Mexican workers are sometimes forced into debt
    peonage, or involuntary servitude, until the
    Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in
    1911
  • Prejudice against the Chinese is so great that
    Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act

61
Closing thought
  • African Americans faced legal segregation in the
    South and de facto segregation in the North,
    while Mexican Americans and Chinese Americans,
    mostly in the West, also faced severe
    discrimination.

62
SECTION 4 DAWN OF A MASS CULTURE
  • Many middle class Americans fought off city
    congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying
    amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator
    sports
  • American leisure was developing into a
    multi-million dollar industry

63
AMUSEMENT PARKS
  • To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers,
    Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside
    land for parks
  • Amusement parks were constructed on the outskirts
    of cities
  • These parks had picnic grounds and a variety of
    rides

Coney Island was Americas most famous amusement
park in the late 19th century
64
BICYCLING TENNIS
  • After the introduction of the safety bike in
    1885, Americans increasingly enjoyed biking
  • By 1890, 312 companies made over 10,000,000 bikes
  • Tennis also was very popular in the late 19th
    century

On the right is the safety bike much easier
and safer to ride
65
SPECTATOR SPORTS
  • Americans not only participated in new sports,
    but became avid fans of spectator sports
  • Baseball and boxing became profitable businesses
  • Mark Twain called baseball, the very symbol of
    the booming 19th century

1897 Baseball team picture Kansas State University
66
NEWSPAPERS
  • Mass-production printing techniques led to the
    publication of millions of books, magazines, and
    newspapers
  • Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were
    two leading publishers whose competition led to
    more and more sensational newspaper reporting

Hearst (above) and Pulitzer initiated what was
known as Yellow Journalism
67
Characteristics of Yellow Journalism included
huge, sensational, exaggerated headlines
68
Some contend that Hearst and Pulitzers Yellow
Journalism was responsible for the
Spanish-American War in 1898
69
GROWING CONSUMERISM
  • The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings
    of the shopping center, department and chain
    stores, and the birth of modern advertising

70
THE DEPARTMENT STORE
  • Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first
    department store to America
  • Fields motto was Give the lady what she wants
  • Field also pioneered the bargain basement
    concept

Marshall Fields has been around for almost 150
years
71
CHAIN STORES
  • In the 1870s, F.W. Woolworth found that if he
    offered an item at a low price, the consumer
    would purchase it on the spur of the moment
  • By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and
    sold 1,000,000 per week

72
ADVERTISING
  • Expenditures for advertising was under 10
    million a year in 1865, but increased to 95
    million by 1900
  • Ads appeared in newspapers, magazines and on
    billboards

73
CATALOGS AND RFD
  • Montgomery Ward and Sears were two pioneers in
    catalog sales
  • By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail
  • In 1896 the Post Office introduced a rural free
    delivery (RFD) system that brought packages
    directly to every home
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