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Title: United States Government Subject: Democracy in Action Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: PA Department of Education Classrooms for the Future – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Contents
Chapter Focus Section 1 A Nation of
Immigrants Section 2 The Basis of
Citizenship Section 3 The Rights of the
Accused Section 4 Equal Protection of the
Law Section 5 Challenges for Civil
Liberties Chapter Assessment
3
Why Its Important
4
Chapter Objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • A Nation of Immigrants Describe immigration
    policy and explain how it has changed.
  • The Basis of Citizenship Explain the requirement
    for United States citizenship.
  • The Rights of the Accused Summarize the rights
    of Americans accused of crimes.
  • Equal Protection of the Law Explain the concept
    of equal protection and the tests by which the
    Supreme Court determines discrimination.
  • Challenges for Civil Liberties Contrast trends
    and laws intended to ensure equal opportunity,
    privacy, and citizens right to know.

5
End of Chapter Focus
6
Section 1-2
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387388)
  • A. Immigrants come to a new country intending to
    live there permanently aliens live in a country
    where they are not citizens.

B. The federal government classifies aliens into
five categories
1. resident aliens 2. nonresident aliens 3.
enemy aliens 4. refugees 5. illegal aliens
7
Section 1-3
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387388)
  • C. Protections of the Bill of Rights, such as
    freedom of speech and assembly, apply to aliens
    as well as citizens.

D. Aliens cannot vote most are exempt from
military duty and serving on juries.
8
Section 1-4
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387388)
9
Section 1-5
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387388)
What responsibilities do aliens have to the U.S.
government?
They must pay taxes, obey the laws, and be loyal
to the government.
10
Section 1-6
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389390)
  • A. In 1882 Congress began to fully use its power
    to regulate immigration, and it imposed many
    restrictions during the next four decades.

B. The Immigration Act of 1924 sharply lowered
the number of immigrants who could arrive each
year and favored those who came from northern and
western Europe. C. The Immigration Reform Act of
1965 changed immigration policy by fixing a
ceiling on countries in the Eastern Hemisphere
and a different ceiling on those in the Western
Hemisphere, as well as creating a complicated
system for preferential treatment of selected
immigrants.
11
Section 1-7
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389390)
  • D. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
    was passed to stem the tide of illegal immigrants
    and to allow illegal immigrants to become
    permanent residents and citizens.

E. The Immigration Act of 1990 was passed to
revise the 1965 immigration law, putting limits
on the flood of immigrants from Asia and Latin
America, and to open immigration to Europeans who
had been adversely affected by the 1965 law.
F. The 1990 immigration law reduced the total
annual immigration slightly, encouraged
immigrants with special skills, and set up
special categories for special immigrants like
close relatives of United States citizens.
12
Section 1-8
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389390)
What do you think should be the goals of the
United States immigration policy?
Answers will vary. Students should consider the
historic issues of immigration policy.
13
Section 1 Assessment-2
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.
___ alien ___ resident alien ___ non-resident
alien ___ enemy alien ___ illegal
alien ___ amnesty ___ private law
  • A. a person from a foreign country who expects to
    stay in the United States for a short, specified
    period of time
  • B. applies to a particular person
  • C. a person from a foreign nation who has
    established permanent residency in the United
    States
  • D. a general pardon to individuals for an offense
    against the government
  • E. a person without legal permission to be in a
    country
  • F. a citizen of a nation with which the United
    States is at war
  • G. a person who lives in a country where he or
    she is not a citizen

G C A F E D B
14
Section 1 Assessment-3
Checking for Understanding
  • 3. Identify refugee.

A refugee is a person fleeing a country to escape
persecution or danger.
15
Section 1 Concepts in Action
  • Cultural Pluralism Every community has a unique
    ethnic history. When did people of various ethnic
    and racial groups begin to come to your
    community? Research your communitys immigration
    history at the local library. Draw a time line
    showing how your community grew and when each
    group began to arrive.

16
End of Section 1
17
Section 2 Introduction-1
The Basis of Citizenship
  • Key Terms
  • naturalization, jus soli, jus sanguinis,
    collective naturalization, expatriation,
    denaturalization

Find Out
What are the requirements for citizenship in
the United States?
What are the main responsibilities of American
citizens?
18
Section 2-1
  • Certain citizens of the United States by birth
    were also made citizens by Congress. When
    Congress admitted Texas as a state in 1845, it
    also made all the people of Texas citizens of the
    U.S.

19
Section 2-2
I. National Citizenship (pages 391393)
  • A. Citizens of the United States have rights,
    responsibilities, and duties.

B. The Founders assumed the states would decide
who was a citizen. C. Citizenship came to have
both a national and a state dimension. D. The
Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African Americans
were not U.S. citizens led to the adoption of the
Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship
at both the state and national levels.
20
Section 2-4
II. Citizenship by Birth (page 393)
  • A. Citizens by the law of the soil are born in
    the U.S. or its territories.

B. Children born to a parent who is a U.S.
citizen are also citizens by the law of blood,
including children born in another country of
American parents.
21
Section 2-6
III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393394)
  • A. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights
    and privileges of native-born citizens.

B. Congress has established qualifications for
naturalization
1. Applicants must be of good moral character
and have entered the U.S. legally. 2.
Applicants must read, write, and speak English.
3. Applicants must show basic knowledge of
American history and government and support the
principles of American government.
22
Section 2-7
III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393394)
Why must applicants show basic knowledge of
American history and government?
Citizens must understand these subjects in order
to participate fully in government.
23
Section 2-8
IV. Steps to Citizenship (pages 394395)
  • A. An applicant must file a petition requesting
    citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have been
    a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30 months
    out of the previous 5 years, and have resided in
    the state for at least 3 months.

B. At a final hearing, a federal judge
administers the oath of allegiance to the new
citizens.
24
Section 2-10
V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395396)
  • A. Only the federal government can take away
    citizenship.

B. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily or
involuntarily.
25
Section 2-11
V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395396)
How may citizenship be taken away?
Expatriation, crimes such as treason, or
denaturalization.
26
Section 2-12
VI. The Responsibilities of Citizens (pages
396397)
  • A. Responsible citizens need to know about the
    laws that govern society.

B. Responsible citizens participate in political
life.
27
Section 2 Assessment-2
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.
___ naturalization ___ jus soli ___ jus
sanguinis ___ collective naturalization ___ expatr
iation ___ denaturalization
  • A. giving up ones citizenship by leaving to live
    in a foreign country
  • B. the principle that grants citizenship on the
    basis of the citizenship of ones parents
  • C. the principle that grants citizenship to
    nearly all people born in a country
  • D. the loss of citizenship through fraud or
    deception during the naturalization process
  • E. the legal process by which a person is granted
    citizenship
  • F. A process by which a group of people become
    American citizens through an act of Congress

E C B F A D
28
Section 2 Assessment-3
Checking for Understanding
  • 3. Identify Dred Scott v. Sandford.

Dred Scott v. Sandford is the Supreme Court case
ruling that decided African Americans were not
U.S. citizens and led to the adoption of the
Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship
at both the state and national levels.
29
Section 2 Assessment-4
Checking for Understanding
  • 4. What are the five requirements for becoming a
    naturalized citizen?

Applicants must have entered the United States
legally be of good moral character declare
their support of the principles of American
government prove that they can read, write, and
speak English and show some basic knowledge of
American history and government.
30
Section 2 Assessment-5
Checking for Understanding
  • 5. In what three ways may American citizenship be
    lost?

American citizenships may be lost through
expatriation, as a punishment for treason, or
denaturalization.
31
Section 2 Assessment-6
Critical Thinking
  • 6. Synthesizing Information  Why does the United
    States require citizenship applicants to speak
    English and have knowledge of the American
    government?

Possible answer Since the United States is based
on self-government, it is vital that new citizens
understand and support the principles of
government and speak the language in order to
participate.
32
Section 2 Concepts in Action
  • Constitutional Interpretations The Fourteenth
    Amendment extends the privileges and immunities
    of each state to all American citizens. Make a
    chart that lists the privileges that you believe
    your state should provide out-of-state persons
    and the privileges that should extend only to
    residents of your state.

33
End of Section 2
34
Chapter Assessment 1
35
Chapter Assessment 2
Reviewing Key Terms
Match the following terms with the descriptions
below. A. affirmative action F. resident
alien B. counsel G. double jeopardy C. illegal
alien H. exclusionary rule D. Jim Crow laws I.
security classification system E.
naturalization J. non-resident alien
  • ___ 1. a person may not be retried for the same
    crime
  • ___ 2. the process of gaining citizenship
  • ___ 3. person from a foreign country who expects
    to stay in the United States for a short,
    specified period of time
  • ___ 4. person from a foreign country who
    establishes permanent residence in the United
    States

G E J F
36
Chapter Assessment 3
Reviewing Key Terms
Match the following terms with the descriptions
below. A. affirmative action F. resident
alien B. counsel G. double jeopardy C. illegal
alien H. exclusionary rule D. Jim Crow laws I.
security classification system E.
naturalization J. non-resident alien
  • ___ 5. person who comes to the United States
    without legal permits
  • ___ 6. an attorney
  • ___ 7. keeps illegally obtained evidence out of
    court
  • ___ 8. laws that discriminated against African
    Americans
  • ___ 9. policy giving preference to minorities
  • ___ 10. how government documents are kept secret

C B H D A I
37
Chapter Assessment 4
Recalling Facts
  • 1. How did the Constitution address the issue of
    citizenship?

The Constitution spoke of citizenship only as a
qualification for holding office in the federal
government.
2. What is the difference between an immigrant
and an alien?
An immigrant enters a new country intending to
live there permanently and become a citizen,
whereas an alien is a temporary resident and may
not intend to become a citizen of the country.
38
Chapter Assessment 5
Recalling Facts
  • 3. What are the three basic sources of United
    States citizenship?

The three basic sources of United States
citizenship are jus soli, jus sanguinis, and
naturalization.
4. What items must be included in a legal search
warrant?
The warrant must describe the place to be
searched and the person or things to be seized.
39
Chapter Assessment 6
Recalling Facts
  • 5. List the three Miranda rules.

Prior to any questioning, the person must be
warned that he or she has the right to remain
silent, that any statement he or she makes may be
used as evidence against him or her in court, and
that he or she has the right to the presence of
an attorney.
40
Chapter Assessment 7
Understanding Concepts
  • 1. Constitutional Interpretations How did the
    Fourteenth Amendment expand citizenship in the
    United States?

It guaranteed citizenship for all people,
regardless of race, who are born in the United
States and subject to its government. It
established state citizenship as an automatic
result of national citizenship.
41
Chapter Assessment 8
Understanding Concepts
  • 2. Civil Rights Why did the Court rule that
    wiretapping without a warrant was an illegal
    search and thus a violation of the Fourth
    Amendment?

The Court ruled that the Fourth Amendment
protects people, not simply areas, from search
and seizure.
42
Chapter Assessment 9
Critical Thinking
  • 1. Describe the circumstances in which collecting
    information about citizens and consumers
    conflicts with the individuals right to privacy.

When government or business shares information
that has been collected with other agencies,
especially when it does not inform the
individual, the right to privacy is jeopardized.
43
Chapter Assessment 10
Critical Thinking
  • 2. Making Generalizations How did the Escobedo
    and Miranda cases extend protection against
    self-incrimination and forced confessions?

These cases overturned convictions in which
confessions were made by the accused before that
person had access to an attorney and before the
accused was told that he or she had the right to
remain silent.
44
Chapter Assessment 11
Critical Thinking
  • 3. Predicting Consequences Use a graphic
    organizer like the one below to show what might
    happen if there were no formal procedures for
    becoming an American citizen.

Effect The country would be flooded with
immigrants and refugees who could not participate
in government.
45
Chapter Assessment 12
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • 1. Who are the people grouped on the left of the
    cartoon?

They are recent immigrants to the United States.
46
Chapter Assessment 13
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • 2. What is the meaning of the comment made by the
    person on the right?

Native Americans, whose presence in the Americas
dates back thousands of years, are the only
non-immigrants. The man in the middle is the
descendant of immigrants.
47
Chapter Assessment 14
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • 3. How is illegal immigrants being defined by
    the cartoonist?

In the cartoon, the term illegal immigrants
applies to both groups on the left. The
cartoonist implies that illegal immigrants are
those people who came to the Americas and took
Native Americans lands.
48
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