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Canada and the United Nations

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Title: Canada and the United Nations Author: User Last modified by: User Created Date: 3/3/2011 3:02:41 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Canada and the United Nations


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Canada and the United Nations
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Canada and the United Nations
Lead-Up to the UN Following the end of World War
I, Woodrow Wilson in his famous Fourteen Points
called for the creation of an international body
that would help provide security and peace
throughout the world. It was an idea that he
believed would help to stop all future wars and
lead to a more peaceful civilization. However,
because of the other events that followed after
World War I, namely the Versailles Peace Treaty
and the Great Depression, aggression once again
grew throughout the world, and the League of
Nations would be exposed as a body that had no
legitimacy or power to deal with international
problems. With the end of World War II, however,
many world powers were determined that this would
never happen again.
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Canada and the United Nations
The roots of the United Nations were born during
the Second World War itself. Throughout the war,
the leaders of the Soviet Union (Josef Stalin),
the United States (Franklin Roosevelt) and the
United Kingdom (Winston Churchill) met frequently
throughout the world. They discussed joint war
plans and how to attack the Axis powers they
also discussed how plans for the post-War world.
They felt that it was necessary to have an
international body in which nations could settle
their disputes. The first plans were laid in
1943, at the Moscow, and later Tehran,
conferences. These were only the most basic of
discussions, and the leaders agreed to meet with
one another later to develop more in-depth plans.
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Canada and the United Nations
Finally, in 1944, the leaders of China, the
United States, the Soviet Union, and Great
Britain met at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,
held just outside of Washington, DC. Here the
outline for the United Nations was developed,
including its membership and organs, as well as
arrangements to maintain international peace and
security and international economic and social
cooperation.
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Canada and the United Nations
Establishment of the UN On April 25, 1945, the
United Nations Conference on International
Organization began in San Francisco. In addition
to governments, a number of non-government
organizations, including Rotary International and
Lions Clubs International received invitations to
assist in the drafting of a charter. After
working for two months, the fifty nations
represented at the conference signed the Charter
of the United Nations on June 26. The charter
stated that before it would come into effect, it
must be ratified by the Governments of the China,
France, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the
United States, and by a majority of the other 46
signatories. This occurred on October 24, 1945,
and the United Nations was officially formed.
Canada would be one of the first 60 nations to
sign onto the agreement, and would soon play a
very important role in the development of the UN.
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Canada and the United Nations
The League of Nations formally dissolved itself
on 18 April 1946 and transferred its mission to
the United Nations.
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Canada and the United Nations
Almost immediately, the number of countries
joining the UN began to grow. From the 50
nations that signed the declaration on October
24, 1945, over 100 more nations joined within the
first decade of its existence. Below you will
see a map that shows the growth of the UN through
the decades.
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Canada and the United Nations
United Nations Charter The Charter consists of a
preamble and a series of articles grouped into
chapters. The preamble consists of two principal
parts. The first part containing a general call
for the maintenance of peace and international
security and respect for human rights. The second
part of the preamble is a declaration in a
contractual style that the governments of the
peoples of the United Nations have agreed to the
Charter.
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Canada and the United Nations
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
Rights One of the most important accomplishments
of the United Nations was the adoption of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
The document states that people cannot be
discriminated against on the basis of race,
colour, sex, religion, and politics, and that
people have a right to health care, education,
and work.
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Canada and the United Nations
The major author of the Declaration was a
Canadian law professor who spent 20 years at the
U.N. -- John Peters Humphrey. John Peters
Humphrey was called upon by the United Nations
Secretary-General to work on the project and
became the Declaration's principal drafter. At
the time Humphrey was newly appointed as Director
of the Division of Human Rights within the United
Nations Secretariat. The Commission on Human
Rights, a standing body of the United Nations,
was constituted to undertake the work of
preparing what was initially conceived as an
International Bill of Rights. The membership of
the Commission was designed to be broadly
representative of the global community.
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Article 1  All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed
with reason and conscience and should act towards
one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article
2  Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour,
sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status. Furthermore, no
distinction shall be made on the basis of the
political, jurisdictional or international status
of the country or territory to which a person
belongs, whether it be independent, trust,
non-self-governing or under any other limitation
of sovereignty. Article 3  Everyone has the
right to life, liberty, and security of person.
Article 4  No one shall be held in slavery or
servitude slavery and the slave trade shall be
prohibited in all their forms. Article 5  No
one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,
inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
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Article 7  All are equal before the law and are
entitled without any discrimination to equal
protection of the law. All are entitled to equal
protection against any discrimination in
violation of this Declaration and against any
incitement to such discrimination. Article 8 
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by
the competent national tribunals for acts
violating the fundamental rights granted him by
the constitution or by law. Article 9  No one
shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention
or exile. Article 10  Everyone is entitled in
full equality to a fair and public hearing by an
independent and impartial tribunal, in the
determination of his rights and obligations and
of any criminal charge against him.
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Article 11 Everyone charged with a penal offence
has the right to be presumed innocent until
proved guilty according to law in a public trial
at which he has had all the guarantees necessary
for his defence. Article 13  Everyone has the
right to freedom of movement and residence within
the borders of each state. Article 15  Everyone
has the right to a nationality. Article 17 
Everyone has the right to own property alone as
well as in association with others. Article 18 
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought,
conscience and religion this right includes
freedom to change his religion or belief, and
freedom, either alone or in community with others
and in public or private, to manifest his
religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship
and observance.
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Article 19  Everyone has the right to freedom of
opinion and expression this right includes
freedom to hold opinions without interference and
to seek, receive and impart information and ideas
through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 21  Everyone has the right to take part
in the government of his country, directly or
through freely chosen representatives. The will
of the people shall be the basis of the authority
of government this will shall be expressed in
periodic and genuine elections which shall be by
universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by
secret vote or by equivalent free voting
procedures.
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Article 25  Everyone has the right to a standard
of living adequate for the health and well-being
of himself and of his family, including food,
clothing, housing and medical care and necessary
social services, and the right to security in the
event of unemployment, sickness, disability,
widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in
circumstances beyond his control. Article 26 
Everyone has the right to education. Education
shall be free, at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be
compulsory. Technical and professional education
shall be made generally available and higher
education shall be equally accessible to all on
the basis of merit.
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Canada and the United Nations
Canada and the Early Years of the UN The Korean
War In 1950, Communist-supported North Korea
invaded American-supported South Korea. The U.N.
condemned the attack and asked member states to
assist South Korea. Canada made the third
largest U.N. contribution (the U.S. was first,
and Britain second) to the defence of South
Korea. With the help of 26,000 Canadian soldiers,
the U.N. forces stopped the aggressor from the
north and restored the security of South Korea by
1953. Over 400 Canadians lost their lives in the
Korean conflict.
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Canada and the United Nations
The Suez Crisis The United Nations faced
another world crisis in 1956 when England,
France, and Israel ganged up on Egypt over the
issue of who should control the Suez Canal. The
Canal was owned by the European countries, but it
was in Egyptian territory. The Soviet Union
backed Egypt and fighting started. In the U.N.,
Canadas Lester Pearson proposed that all troops
be withdrawn from the area and that the two
warring sides be kept apart by a special U.N.
peacekeeping force. This plan was accepted, and
Canada provided the largest number of soldiers to
the U.N.s first peace army. Since 1956, the
U.N.s blue helmeted peacekeepers have been used
in many other parts of the world. For his work,
Lester Pearson was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace
Prize.
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Canada and the United Nations
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