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Mediterranean

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Feudalism Middle ... East divided by Berlin Wall - two Germanys reunite in 1990 as a democracy - The Cold War continues for years between the U.S.A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mediterranean


1
Mediterranean
  • Greece
  • People enter Balkan Peninsula
  • around 2000 B.C.
  • Two major city-states were
  • Athens and Sparta
  • Democracya government in which the people rule
  • Philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
  • Greece conquered by Alexander the Great in 338
    B.C.

Continued . . .
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2
  • The Roman Empire
  • Rome rules Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C.
  • Republicelected representatives
  • rule in citizens name
  • Ruled by Caesars
  • Created roads, aqueducts,
  • and architecture
  • Christianity religion by A.D. 400
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • In A.D. 395 empire
  • splits into eastern,
  • western halves
  • Eastern Orthodox,
  • Roman Catholic

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3
Italy Without strong central government, Italy
divides into small states Renaissancerenewed
interest in learning, arts from 1300s to 1500s
Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Donetello In 1347,
Bubonic plague reaches Italy After WWII and
Benito Mussolini, Italy became republic, but had
many governments
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4
Centuries of Art Ruins (like the Parthenon)
remain in Greece, Italy Spain has Roman
aqueductscarry water long distances - Spain
also has Muslim mosques
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5
  • Spain
  • North African Muslims conquer Iberian
  • Peninsula in 700s
  • - retaken by Catholic rulers,
  • Ferdinand and Isabella, by 1492
  • Spain, Portugal launch Age of
  • Exploration, colonize Americas
  • Christians start Crusades in 1096 to
  • regain Palestine from Muslims
  • After dictator Francisco Franco, Spain sets up
    constitutional government
  • Agriculture to Industry
  • Mediterranean nations less industrialized
  • Economy once based on fish, crops, now moving
    towards manufacturing

6
Western Europe
France, Germany and Benelux countriesBelgium,
the Netherlands, Luxembourg
Creation Rome conquered France and the Germanic
tribes Germanic king Charlemagne unites Germany
in late 700s - after his death Germany divides
into small kingdoms The Reformation In 1517,
Martin Luthers critical 95 statements starts
the Reformation - Christians break from
church, formed Protestant churches
Continued . . .
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7
FeudalismMiddle Ages system where lords own
most of the land Nationalism - people should
be loyal to their nation 1789 French Revolution
deposes king, forms republic Napoleon Bonaparte
takes power, tries to conquer Europe, is
defeated and exiled
Continued . . .
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8
Nationalism European nation-states become
rivals - Germany unifies in 1871 In 1800s,
industrialized nations seek colonies for
materials, markets
Modern Conflicts Competition for colonies cause
WWI - Allied Powers (France) Central Powers
(Germany, Austria-Hungary) Allies win WWI
harsh terms forced on Germany lead to WWII
Continued . . .
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9
In WWII, Nazi Germanys Adolf Hitler tries to
conquer Europe - Holocaustmass murder of
European Jews, others - Allies defeat Germany in
1945 After WWII, Germany split into
non-Communist West, Communist East divided by
Berlin Wall - two Germanys reunite in 1990 as a
democracy - The Cold War continues for years
between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
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10
Economics
Agriculture to High-Tech Agriculture important
to Belgium, France, Netherlands Coal, iron made
France, Germany, Netherlands industrial
leaders Switzerlands neutrality makes it a
banking center
German cars Swiss watchesFrench clothes,
food Dutch flowers
Economic Problems Germany experiences cultural,
economic difficulties after reuniting
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11
Great Music and Art
Music Famed German and Austrian composers -
Germany Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van
Beethoven - Austria Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Painting Dutch painters, Rembrandt Major
French painters - Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste
Renoir
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12
Northern Countries
  • Nordic countriesDenmark, Finland, Iceland,
    Norway, Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Conquers
  • Romans conquer Britains Celts by A.D. 80, then
    the Vikings, then William the Conquer in 1066
  • Dreams of Empire
  • Denmark, Sweden, Norway become kingdoms in 900s
  • - no Nordic country becomes a major empire
  • England controls British Isles (Wales, Ireland,
    Scotland)
  • British Empire grows due to islands safety
    never invaded after 1066
  • By 1800s, Britain has colonies in Americas,
    Asia, Africa, Oceania

Continued . . .
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13
Government Parliamentrepresentative lawmaking
body members elected, appointed Britain has
monarchy and parliament Nordic countries
develop representative governments
Industrial Revolution As Britain
industrializes, colonies supply materials, buy
goods
Continued . . .
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14
Since 1900 After WWII, British colonies gain
independence, turmoil
The Irish Question English take Irish
land - many Irish in poverty, starve in 1840s
potato famine Irish seek independence, Britain
splits country in 1921 - Catholic - Republic of
Ireland - independent - Protestant - Northern
Ireland - still part of U.K. - religious
conflict in Northern Ireland leads to
anti-British violence
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15
Cultural Similarities and Modern Art
Similar Religions Most of region is
Protestant except Ireland
Modern Culture and Literature Literature
- England William Shakespeare, Charlotte
Brontë - Irish author James Joyce Social
Welfare Nordic countries, Britain have national
health insurance programs Leisure Many
winter Olympic skiing sports British have
horseback riding, fox hunting - developed rugby
and cricket
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16
Eastern Europe
Located between Asia and Europe - migration
creates diversity Area includes Albania,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Macedonia,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Cultural
crossroadsplace where various cultures cross
paths - people move through the region, world
powers try to control it Empires and Kingdoms
Controlled by Rome then held by Byzantine Empire,
then Ottoman Empire in 1300s, 1400s Austria
becomes great power in 1400s, takes Hungary from
Ottomans - in late 1700s, Austria, Prussia,
Russia divide up Poland
Continued . . .
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17
  • War after War
  • Balkan nations break from Ottoman Empire in
    1908
  • - Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia defeat Ottomans in
    1912
  • - Balkanizationa region breaks up into small,
    hostile units
  • Slavic Serbia wants to free Austria-Hungarian
    Slavs
  • - Serb assassin kills Austrian noble, starts
    WWI
  • After WWI, Austria and Hungary split
  • - Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
    Yugoslavia gain independence
  • Germany takes Poland in 1939, starts WWII
  • - Soviets capture, dominate Eastern European
    nations
  • - they become Communist USSRs satellite
    nations
  • When USSR breaks up the satellite nations divide
    up
  • Yugoslavia splits violently
  • Czechoslovakia splits in two

Continued . . .
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18
Industry - Economy Communism, government owns
and controls factories - inefficiency brings
shortages After 1989 - market economymeeting
demands - factories are privately owned,
inflation, unemployment Problems Old equipment,
lack of materials, few educated workers Culture
Music - Frédéric Chopin (Polish) Numerous
languages make regional unification difficult
Religions include Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox
- Protestant, Islam minority
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19
Conflict Fierce loyalty to ethnic groups leads
to violence - many Serbs hate Croats for WWII
collaboration with Nazis Discrimination against
minority groups - anti-Semitismdiscrimination
against Jewish people - discrimination against
nomadic Romany (Gypsy) people Democracy Eas
tern Europeans must overcome old hatreds
Continued . . .
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