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Bonding and Chemical Reactions

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Title: Bonding and Chemical Reactions


1
Bonding and Chemical Reactions
2
Compounds and Molecules
  • Chemical Bond forces that hold atoms together in
    a compound.
  • Chemical Structure the arrangement of atoms in a
    substance

3
Chemical Structure
  • compounds with networks are strong solids
  • ex diamond, quartz, many rocks
  • networked compounds have melting and boiling
    points
  • ex salts, rocks, diamonds

4
Chemical Structure
  • Some compounds are made of molecules
  • ex H2, O2, N2, CO2 are all gases with weak
    attraction
  • hydrogen bonds are very strong

5
Bonding
  • Atoms form bonds so each atom has 8 valence
    electrons.
  • This is known as stable.

6
Ionic Bonding
  • Ionic Bonds between oppositely charged atoms
    usually on opposite sides of the periodic table
    (nonmetal and a metal)
  • transfer electrons
  • form networks, not molecules
  • conduct electricity

7
Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds share electrons usually between
    2 elements close on the periodic table (2
    nonmetals)
  • nonpolar covalent bond e- shared equally
  • polar covalent bond e- shared unequally

8
Compound Names and Formulas
  • Compounds have specific names so you can tell how
    many and what atoms are in the compound/molecule.

9
Ionic Naming
  • Cations are just the name of the element
  • Anions have -ide at the end of the elements name

Ionic compounds MUST have a total charge of zero!!
Na1 Cl-1 NaCl 0 charge!
10
Transition Metal Naming
  • Transition metals show their charges as Roman
    Numerals because they can change charge!!

FeO Fe2 O-2 Iron (II) Oxide
Fe2O3 Fe3 O-2 Iron (III) Oxide
11
What is the formula for Lithium Oxide?
12
What is the name for CuCl2?
13
Covalent Naming
  • To name covalent compounds, you must put a prefix
    in front of the elements name.
  • mono-
  • di-
  • tri-
  • tetra-
  • penta-
  1. hexa-
  2. hepta-
  3. octa-
  4. nona-
  5. deca-

If you only have 1 cation, you dont need a
prefix!
14
What is the name of H2O?
15
Formulas
  • Molecular Formula how many atoms are in a
    molecule of a compound

GLUCOSE
Molecular Formula
C6H12O6
16
Chemical Reactions
  • Rearrange atoms
  • Involve changes in energy
  • Exothermic release energy (heat, fire, fizz,
    etc)
  • Endothermic absorb energy (drop in temp.)

17
Chemical Equations
methane and oxygen yield carbon dioxide and water
Reactants
Products
18
Balance the reaction.
19
Balance the reaction.
20
Reaction Types
  • Synthesis
  • A B AB
  • Decomposition
  • AB A B
  • Combustion ALWAYS HAS O2 AS A REACTANT!
  • AB O2 AO BO

21
Reaction Types
  • Single-Replacement (single-displacement)
  • AX B A BX
  • Double-Replacement (double-displacement)
  • AX BY AY BX
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