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Understanding Ecosystems!

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Title: Understanding Ecosystems!


1
Understanding Ecosystems!
Reminder student learning activities are at the
end of this power point.
2
Common Core/ Next Generation Science Addressed
  • MS-LS2-1.-Analyze and interpret data to provide
    evidence for the effects of resource availability
    on organisms and populations of organisms in an
    ecosystem.
  • MS-LS2-3. - Develop a model to describe the
    cycling of matter and flow of energy among
  • living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
  • MS-LS2-4. - Construct an argument supported by
    empirical evidence that changes to physical
  • or biological components of an ecosystem affect
    populations.
  • MS-LS2-2. -Construct an explanation that predicts
    patterns of interactions among organisms
  • across multiple ecosystems.
  • MS-LS2-5.- Evaluate competing design solutions
    for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem
  • services.
  • RST.6-8.1-Cite specific textual evidence to
    support analysis of science and technical texts.
  • (MS-LS1-6),(MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4)
  • RST.6-8.7-Integrate quantitative or technical
    information expressed in words in a text with
  • a version of that information expressed visually
    (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram,
  • model, graph, or table). (MS-LS2-1)

3
Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Addressed!
  • NRS.01. Plan and conduct natural resource
    management activities that apply
  • logical, reasoned and scientifically based
    solutions to natural resource issues and goals.
  • NRS.01.01. Apply methods of classification to
    examine natural resource availability and
    ecosystem function in a particular region.
  • Sample Measurement The following sample
    measurement strands are provided to guide the
    development of measurable activities, at
    different levels of proficiency, to assess
    students attainment of knowledge and skills
    related to this performance indicator. The topics
    represented by each strand are not
    all-encompassing.
  • NRS.01.01.02.a. Summarize the components that
    comprise all ecosystems.

4
Bell Work!
  • What type of environmental problems do we face
    here in New Mexico?
  • What type of forests are found in New Mexico?
  • Where would you find an ecosystem?

5
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6
Student Learning Objectives
  • 1. Explain the role of ecology in the
    environment.
  • 2. Describe community organization, structure,
    and food chains.
  • 3. Describe natural selection and succession.
  • 4. Explain homeostasis.
  • 5. Identify population ecology and trends
    affecting population growth.
  • 6. Identify and distinguish between biomes.

7
Terms
  • Biome
  • Biosphere
  • Carnivore
  • Community
  • Competition
  • Decomposer
  • Ecology
  • Ecosystem
  • Food chain
  • Habitat
  • Herbivore
  • Homeostasis
  • Natural selection
  • Niche
  • Omnivore

8
Terms
  • Population density
  • Population ecology
  • Predation
  • Producer
  • Succession
  • Transformer

9
Interest Approach
  • If you were on a deserted island with only 10
    pounds of corn and a dairy goat, what would you
    do?
  • Would you eat the corn and the goat?
  • Would you eat the goat and plant the corn?
  • Would you plant some of the corn and feed the
    rest to the goat?
  • Approach Two Daily factors affect the
    relationship between the environment and living
    organisms. Ask students to identify some of the
    relationships. These relationships will be
    investigated in this lesson.

10
Objective 1
  • Explain the role of ecology in the environment.

11
What is the role of Ecology in the Environment?
  • Ecology is the study of how living organisms
    exist in their environment.

12
What is the role of Ecology in the Environment?
  • A. Biosphere is the area of the earth that
    supports life.
  • B. An Ecosystem is a self-contained living system.

Forestry Supply Company
13
What is the role of Ecology in the Environment?
  • 1. The biotic portion of an ecosystem is living.
  • 2. The abiotic portion is non-living.
  • 3. The biotic portion relies on the abiotic
    portion.
  • For example, plants, which are biotic, require
    soil nutrients, which are abiotic.
  • 4. The biotic portion may rely on other biotic
    factors.
  • For example, animals eat plants.

14
Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate
Publishers, Inc
15
Objective Two
  • Describe community organization, structure, and
    food chains.

16
How does the Community Function?
  • A Community is a collection of plants and
    animals that live together.

17
Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate
Publishers, Inc
18
How does the Community Function?
  • Habitat is the natural home of a plant or animal.
  • 1. The interactions of biotic and abiotic
    factors form habitats.
  • 2. Habitat may be terrestrial (land), aquatic
    (water), or a combination (wetland).
  • 3. A change in a portion of the habitat affects
    all organisms present.

19
How does the Community Function?
  • A Niche is the special way of living that an
    organism has in a community.
  • 1. It includes available food, shelter, way of
    life, and relationships.
  • 2. Each organism makes unique contributions to
    its habitat.

20
How does the Community Function?
  • The Food chain is the sequence in which the
    living organisms in a community obtain their
    food.
  • 1. Producers are plants that make food through
    photosynthesis.
  • 2. Transformers are organisms that take in
    producers and synthesize more complex forms of
    food.
  • 3. Decomposers are organisms that break down
    organic materials into their constituents for
    re-use by the environment.

21
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22
How does the Community Function?
  • Feeding groups are segments of a food chain that
    consume certain types of food.
  • 1. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants.
  • 2. Carnivores are animals that eat only flesh of
    other animals.
  • 3. Omnivores are animals that eat both plants
    and animals.

23
Objective Three
  • Describe natural selection and succession.

24
What is Natural Selection and Succession?
  • Organisms must adapt to changes in their
    environment to survive.

25
What is Natural Selection and Succession?
  • Natural selection is when life forms that are
    best adapted to their environment survive longer
    and leave more offspring.
  • 1. Adaptation occurs when species tolerate
    changes in the environment.
  • 2. Advantageous traits are emphasized in natural
    selection, i.e. more dominant features are passed
    on to offspring.

26
What is Natural Selection and Succession?
  • Succession is replacement of one community with
    another.
  • 1. The species with the lowest biomass grow
    first.
  • 2. Natural events or human interference control
    the speed of succession.

27
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28
Objective 4
  • Explain Homeostasis

29
What is Homeostasis?
  • Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to
    maintain a fairly constant internal environment
    when the external environment changes.

30
What is Homeostasis?
  • B. The organism is affected by
  • 1. Climate
  • 2. Moisture
  • 3. Temperature
  • 4. Light
  • 5. Soil
  • 6. Periodicity (when things occur in regular
    intervals)

31
Objective 5
  • Identify population ecology and trends affecting
    population growth.

32
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population ecology is the study of how
    populations of organisms affect each other in a
    community.

33
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population ecology considers three primary
    factors.
  • 1. Population density is the measure of how
    crowded organisms are in a community.
  • A. A higher density means more competition for
    resources.
  • B. Weaker individuals may not survive in areas
    of high population density.

34
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population ecology considers three primary
    factors. (continued)
  • 2. The age of a population is classified as
  • A. Pre-reproductive young organisms not yet
    reproducing.
  • B. Reproductive age at which reproduction
    occurs.
  • C. Post reproductive past normal age of
    reproduction.

35
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population ecology considers three primary
    factors. (continued)
  • 3. Distribution describes the spatial relation
    between organisms in the community.
  • A. Some organisms will cluster (i.e. squirrels
    around a tree).
  • B. Some scattering is often needed (i.e. trees
    require space to grow).

36
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population growth studies the natural trends in
    the population of a community.
  • 1. Immigration organisms move into a community.
  • 2. Emigration organisms move out of a
    community.
  • 3. Natality production of new individuals in a
    community.
  • 4. Mortality death rate of a community.

37
What are population ecology and what trends
affect population growth?
  • Population growth studies the natural trends in
    the population of a community. (continued)
  • 5. Competition organisms share the same
    resources to live.
  • A. Increased competition may stunt growth.
  • B. Competition may be created by increasing
    population density.
  • 6. Predation one living organism serves as
    food for another.

38
Objective 6
  • Identify and distinguish between biomes.

39
How are biomes different?
  • Biomes are unique combinations of plants and
    animals.

40
How are biomes different?
  • A. There are five major terrestrial biomes.
  • 1. Tropical forests are characterized by a warm,
    wet climate.
  • 2. Temperate forests are common forests in the
    U.S.
  • 3. Grasslands and savannas are areas where
    grasses normally grow.

41
How are biomes different?
  • A. There are five major terrestrial
    biomes(continued)
  • 4. Tundra (low temperature and short growing
    season) and taiga (cold climate with
  • conifer forests) represent minimal diversity.
  • 5. Deserts support some plant and animals.

42
How are biomes different?
  • B. There are four major aquatic biomes that are
    dependent on water type and movement.
  • 1. Lakes and ponds provide a habitat for
    freshwater organisms.
  • 2. Streams vary by water temperature and water
    flow.

43
How are biomes different?
  • B. There are four major aquatic biomes that are
    dependent on water type and movement. (continued)
  • 3. Oceans provide a suitable habitat for
    organisms that would not survive in
  • freshwater.
  • 4. Wetlands (i.e. swamps and marshes) and
    estuaries (saltwater or freshwater where
  • streams flow into oceans) are land areas that
    are affected by water.

44
Review / Summary
  • What is Ecology?
  • Identify the term community.
  • How is a Niche and a Community alike and how are
    they different?
  • Identify the correct term for animals that eat
    plants, animals that eat meat, and animals that
    eat both plants and meat.

45
Review / Summary (continued)
  • How are Biomes different?
  • Identify the five major biomes.

46
The End!
NEXT Student Learning Activities
47
Student Learning Activities
  • Sample tests are available under the Lesson Plan
    tab.

48
Food Web Name ____________________________________
1. For the food web, label each organism (Some
may have more than one label) P producer
1 Primary Consumer 2 Secondary Consumer 3
Tertiary Consumer 4 Quaternary Consumer 2.
Label each animal as either a H herbivore C
carnivore O omnivore
3. Create your own food web on the back of this
paper. You do not need to draw pictures, you
could just write the words. Animals that you
should include on your web are MOUSE, CORN,
BLUEBIRD, KING SNAKE, HAWK, CAT, and CRICKET.
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Name _____________________________
Fill in the chart. With the energy that flows
through plants.
54
KEY
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