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Urban Decarbonisation: Experience in the UK Seminar at the Intelligent City Salon Berlin, 15 Juni 2011

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Title: Urban Decarbonisation: Experience in the UK Seminar at the Intelligent City Salon Berlin, 15 Juni 2011


1
Urban Decarbonisation Experience in the
UK Seminar at the Intelligent City Salon
Berlin, 15 Juni 2011
  • Sam Fankhauser
  • Grantham Research Institute and CCCEP
  • London School of Economics
  • Support by the ESRC and the Grantham Foundation
    is gratefully acknowledged

2
Overview
  • Britains carbon targets
  • Decarbonising transport
  • Decarbonising buildings
  • Decarbonising electric power

3
The 2008 Climate Change Act
  • Sets legally binding carbon targets
  • Long-term (2050) target set in the Act
  • Binding 5-year carbon budgets set 12 years ahead
  • First three budgets (200822) set in 2009
  • Fourth budget (2023-27) to be determined later
    in 2011
  • Puts in place an institutional framework for
    delivery
  • Independent Committee on Climate Change
    recommends budgets and reports on progress

4
The mandatory 2050 target
Set in the Climate Change Act, as recommended by
the CCC
  • UK 2050 legislated target
  • 80 reduction in GHG from 1990, all sources

Global emissions peak by 2020, halve by 2050
5
The carbon budgets 2008 - 27
Interim Budget is currently legislated, CCC
recommends tightening
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
6
Indicative emissions trajectories
Different sectors will have different emission
reduction paths
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
7
The special role of cities
Sources of urban greenhouse gas emissions
Source Kennedy et al 2009
8
Overview
  • Britains carbon targets
  • Decarbonising transport
  • Decarbonising buildings
  • Decarbonising electric power

9
Transport emissions
Technological change dominates demand management
10
Key technology targets for 2020
  • New car efficiency of 95 gCO2/km
  • Through a combination of vehicle technologies
  • 1.7m battery and plug-in hybrid electric cars
  • 16 of new car sales and 5 of fleet
  • New van efficiency of 135 gCO2/km
  • Biofuel penetration of 8
  • Mostly for buses, HGVs, some PHEVs
  • Limited availability of sustainable biofuels

11
A combination of vehicle technologies
12
How different technologies might add up
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
13
Encouraging electric car uptake
  • Price incentives
  • Government subsidy of 5,000 on new cars
  • Differentiation in road tax, excise duty, London
    Congestion Charge
  • Provide recharging points
  • London 1,300 charging points by 2013
  • Although experience shows most people charge at
    home

14
Key behavioural targets
  • Ecodriving
  • Train 10 of car / van drivers, all HGV drivers
  • Enforcing speed limits on motorways
  • Smarter choices program in all cities and towns
  • Policies encouraging car sharing, working from
    home, use of public transport
  • Introduction of road pricing?
  • In addition to, not instead of fuel duty

15
Smarter choices
  • Pilot programme to change travel behaviour
  • Workplace, school and personal travel plans
  • Personalised travel planning, travel awareness
    campaigns, and public transport information
  • Car clubs and car sharing schemes
  • Teleworking, teleconferencing and home shopping
  • Three pilot sustainable travel towns
  • Darlington, Peterborough and Worcester
  • 15million over 5 years (2004-09)

16
Smarter choices Pilot results
17
Key policy levers
Improve efficiency of conventional vehicles
(e.g. more stringent new car CO2 target-based
regulation, complementing fuel duty)
Encourage uptake of electric, plug-in hybrid and
hydrogen vehicles
(e.g. taxes/subsidies on fuel/vehicles or very
stringent new vehicle CO2 regulation)
Manage additional electricity demand
(e.g. Smart meters and time-of-day tariffs)
Encourage deployment of hydrogen buses
(e.g. regulation, economic instruments)
Continue to reduce travel demand
(e.g. Smarter Choices, incentives to improve
logistics, land use planning)
Encourage sustainable biofuels
(e.g. Regulation mandating minimum life-cycle
emissions saving)
18
Overview
  • Britains carbon targets
  • Decarbonising transport
  • Decarbonising buildings
  • Decarbonising electric power

19
Emissions from buildings
Push in energy efficiency and gradual
introduction of renewable heat
20
A boost in energy efficiency
Targets on insulation, boilers and appliances
Budgets 1, 2 and 3
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
21
The role of new heat technologies
Renewable sources of heat emerging in the 2020s
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
22
Energy efficiency measures
  • Supplier obligations
  • Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT)
  • Financial assistance
  • Green Deal (for building efficiency)
  • Green Investment Bank (for large investments)
  • Information and technical assistance
  • Carbon Trust, Energy Savings Trust
  • Reputation and management incentives
  • CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme

23
Energy efficiency and fuel poverty
Energy efficiency could take 300,000 households
out of fuel poverty
Targeted energy efficiency
Tariff structure (e.g. block tariffs)
Income support (e.g. winter fuel payments)
24
Overview
  • Britains carbon targets
  • Decarbonising transport
  • Decarbonising buildings
  • Decarbonising electric power

25
Electric power emissions
Electricity generation needs to be all but
carbon-free in 20 years
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
26
Wholesale replacement of generating assets
Many power stations due for replacement in the
2020s anyway
Source CCC (2009, 2010)
on shore offshore
27
Has it worked?
Emissions are within budget, but mostly due to
the recession
Source Committee on Climate Change (2010)
28
Urban Decarbonisation Experience in the
UK Seminar at the Intelligent City Salon
Berlin, 15 Juni 2011
  • Sam Fankhauser
  • Grantham Research Institute and CCCEP
  • London School of Economics
  • Support by the ESRC and the Grantham Foundation
    is gratefully acknowledged
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