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University%20of%20Colorado%20at%20Boulder%20Leeds%20School%20of%20Business

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Title: Interviewing for Information Subject: Training Author: JGriffith Created Date: 11/2/1999 10:41:14 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: University%20of%20Colorado%20at%20Boulder%20Leeds%20School%20of%20Business


1
University of Colorado at Boulder Leeds School
of Business
  • September 21st, 2005

2
Agenda
  • Welcome!
  • Introductions 500 510
  • Status Report Sessions 510 - 530
  • Status Reporting Discussion 530 540
  • Interviewing for Information 540 550
  • Interviewing Exercise 550 620
  • Interviewing Discussion Qs 620 630
  • Dinner 630 700
  • Root Cause Analysis 700 710
  • Root Cause Exercises 710 730
  • Team Project QA 730 800
  • Thank You for Coming

3
Logistics
  • Agenda
  • Activities
  • Dinner
  • Facilities
  • Follow-up

4
Introductions
  • Name
  • Personal elevator speech

5
Status Reporting Fundamentals
6
Methodology Checkpoint

                                                            
Pursuit The activities involved in obtaining an
engagement, either at a new client or at an
existing client.   Mobilize The activities
required to begin a project typically involve
work planning and scheduling, project staffing,
job set up from an administrative perspective,
kick-off meetings, etc.   Execute and
Control Activities required to continually
monitor project progress, report status, revise
plan based on actual events, manage project cost
and schedule against budget, control scope, bill
and collect both fees and expenses,
etc.   Close The activities required to close a
project both at the client and for Hitachi
Consulting obtain final sign-offs, prepare
final invoice, move intellectual capital to the
Knowledge Library, perform final knowledge
transfer activities, close the job number, etc.
7
Competency Checkpoint
8
Objectives
Status Reporting
  • Introduce (or review) fundamental project
    documentation
  • Issues
  • Status reports
  • After completing this topic you should be able to
  • Identify issues and document on the appropriate
    log
  • Prepare a status report, written or oral, that
    provides relevant, timely, and concise
    information to your immediate manager
  • This topic will also help avert common mistakes
    such as
  • Failing to notify your supervisors or managers of
    issues
  • Providing too little, too much, or irrelevant
    information when asked to report status

9
Agenda
Status Reporting
  • Issue identification and documentation
  • Definition of issues
  • Types of issues
  • How issues are documented
  • How issue resolution is documented
  • Review of real issue logs
  • Exercise on identifying issues
  • Status Reporting
  • What is a status report?
  • Why are status reports needed?
  • What are the key components of a status report?
  • How is a status report developed?
  • Example status reports
  • Status report exercise

10
Status Reporting
Issue Identification and Documentation
11
First, we need to define the term issue
Status Reporting
  • According to the dictionary
  • Issue a vital or unsettled matter
  • With respect to a work plan and project, these
    are items that come up regularly throughout the
    course of a project that require a decision to be
    made, usually by bringing several people
    together. An open question is not necessarily an
    issue its just a follow-up point. An issue
    implies that the individual identifying the issue
    either cannot or will not make a decision or find
    the necessary information without additional
    assistance. Failure to resolve the issue will
    usually hold up other work.

12
Issue Identification and Documentation
Status Reporting
  • Identification, documentation and resolution of
    issues is critical to the success of any project.
  • When issues are identified it is critical that
    you follow the protocol set up by the project
    management team.
  • Written documentation of the issue
  • Oral communication of the issue
  • Quantitative or qualitative evaluation
  • Proper reporting using agreed upon templates,
    tools or databases
  • If you have identified a situation that you have
    concerns about and are not sure if it is an
    issueASK

13
Issues occur in any project theyre expected
Status Reporting
  • Types of typical project issues include
  • Recognition of business processes or systems
    outside the project scope that affect the
    in-scope efforts
  • Disagreements about what is in scope or out of
    scope
  • Individual tasks or deliverables falling behind
    schedule
  • Team members who dont have time to participate
    as planned
  • Process or system requirements that appear to
    oppose each other
  • Incorrect assumptions
  • Missing information and no idea as to where or
    how to obtain it
  • Required tasks that werent identified and now
    must be completed
  • In summary, all issues require some sort of
    further research and resolution. Some issues are
    critical failure to resolve them increases
    risk. Other issues have lower priority Yes,
    we know this is an open question well solve it
    in good time.

14
Issues are documented in a log or database to
which all team members have access
Status Reporting
  • Regardless of tool or format, the following
    information is typically captured about an issue
  • Issue description need enough information to
    understand the problem and why its an issue.
    Two words wont do it!
  • Issue date
  • Issue reported by
  • Issue assigned to
  • Issue type (varies by project, there will be a
    set of type codes)
  • Issue priority
  • Issue status (new, in process, on hold, resolved,
    etc.)
  • Issue resolution description
  • Issue resolution date

15
Example of an issues database
Status Reporting
Project management uses the tool to review and
follow up on issues requiring resolution.
Individual team members can find the issues for
which they are responsible. Anyone can look up
the final resolution of an issue.
16
Issues are frequently topics in status meetings
Status Reporting
  • Issues are included in status reports and status
    meetings in several ways
  • Counts of open issues and issues resolved to date
    may be included in written status reports. These
    counts indicate progress in both opening and
    closing issues. (No issues on a project is a bad
    sign!)
  • New issues may be individually listed in status
    reports
  • Specific issues may be included as discussion
    topics for a status meeting

17
Issues are frequently topics in status meetings
Status Reporting
  • Most frequent reason for not resolving an issue
    is failure to have both the individuals who have
    the necessary information and the individuals
    with the authority to make a decision in the same
    place at the same time.

Wheres Joe? He knows why we have to run these
reports every quarter.
18
Why are we discussing issues with you?
Status Reporting
  • The individuals doing the detailed work on a
    project are often the first to find new issues.
    They pop out in seemingly insignificant
    conversations, meetings, and documents. You will
    usually see them before project management does.
  • You need to be actively listening to your client
    be on the lookout for issues. Use deductive
    reasoning to recognize what was implied or what
    wasnt said and dig for it.
  • Less experienced individuals may be asked to
    review the open issues log and call the
    individual assigned with an old issue to see
    whats happening lingering issues can come back
    and bite us.

When in doubt, log it!
19
Status Reporting
Status Reports
20
Status reports communicate project progress
Status Reporting
  • Status reports communicate project progress and
    performance to project management and client
    management.
  • Hitachi Consulting standard is to have written
    project status reports given to client management
    no less than every two weeks. These status
    reports are a summary of lower level status
    reports.
  • Frequency and format of individual or sub-team
    status reports differ by project management
    requirements and style.

21
Status reports usually contain three types of
information
Status Reporting
  • Project progress and performance against schedule
    and budget
  • Highlights of activity currently taking place
    What have we recently completed? What are we
    working on right now? Whats coming up in the
    near term?
  • Topics or issues that require management
    attention now

22
Status reports serve several purposes
Status Reporting
  • Standard vehicle for raising issues to the next
    level of attention (project management, project
    steering committee, client management, Hitachi
    Consulting management)
  • Force everyone on the project team to reflect on
    their work see their forest as well as their
    trees
  • Provide a documentation trail for issues,
    concerns, problems, etc.

Why are you surprised? We said the same thing
in the last three status reports.
23
Status reports often contain the following data,
for an individual, a team, or an entire project
Status Reporting
  • Status Date
  • Reporting Period
  • Overall status
  • Comparison of budgeted hours or cost to total
    current estimated hours or cost (remember ETCs?)
  • Assessment of whether project is on schedule (in
    text)
  • Other statistics that could indicate status, such
    as open issue count , open test incident count,
    number of training classes conducted, procedures
    written, specifications completed
  • High level status narrative
  • List of tasks or deliverables completed since
    last status report
  • Tasks or deliverables planned for the next period

24
Status reports often contain the following data,
for an individual, a team, or an entire project
Status Reporting
  • Brief description of issues identified since the
    last status report
  • Status changes on high priority issues logged in
    previous reporting periods
  • Items requiring attention at the next level
  • Amount of detail depends on the audience for the
    report

25
Be concise brief but complete in preparing
your status reports
Status Reporting
  • Use a status report template provided by your
    supervisor or project manager if you werent
    given one, ask for it
  • Fill in all the requested data
  • Use bullet points, not paragraphs
  • Remember to include old, unresolved issues if
    they are impeding your progress
  • Get your status reports in on time they are
    usually needed to complete team, project, or
    program level status reports

Dont wait for the status report to talk about
critical issues project managers dont like
surprises, and may not have time before their
status meeting to get the details they need.
26
Status reports may be delivered orally as well
Status Reporting
  • Project management may schedule meetings to
    review the status reports from several teams.
  • Status meetings reinforce the integration and
    interaction needed to make projects successful.
  • Be prepared to deliver your status report orally
    focusing on key milestones, activities, plans for
    next period and issues.

27
In Summary
Status Reporting
  • Status reporting is the primary communication
    tool used to inform the Project Management team
    and helps to ensure project control
  • Issue identification must happen on a timely
    basis to allow the Project Management team to
    take corrective action
  • It is your responsibility to accurately report
    status and promptly report issues to your
    supervisor and/or the Project Management team.
    Ask your Project Manager about the correct
    protocol to follow on your project.

28
In Summary
Key Takeaways
  • Status reporting is the primary communication
    tool used to inform the Project Management team
    and helps to ensure project control
  • Be concise brief but complete and know your
    audience when preparing status reports
  • Issue identification must happen on a timely
    basis to allow the Project Management team to
    take corrective action

29
Project Name Weekly Progress Ending Date
Green Light On Target (quality and time) no
key issues
Yellow Light Some Slippage (quality or time)
key issue resolution required
X
Red Light Significant Slippage Requires
revised approach
Summary This Space is provided to give a broad
stroke summary of the Projects weekly progress
Template
Major Activities/Milestones Major Activities/Milestones Major Activities/Milestones
Target Date Complete
7/15/05 95
7/15/05 90
7/15/05 75
7/15/05 15
7/15/05 5


Key Issues and Risks
  • Key Issues and Risks that your project may face

Key Activities Next Week
  • Key Activities that the project will accomplish
    next week

Action Plans for Risk Mitigation
  • Plans to Mitigate the project issues and risks

Key Financials
Total Approved Hours/Budget
Spend to Date
Remaining Hours/Budget
Percent Remaining
30
Status Reporting Exercise 510 530
  • One Hitachi Consulting Representative per CU Team
  • CU Team
  • Please present status report to Hitachi
    Consulting Representative
  • Hitachi Consulting Representative
  • Ask insightful questions about the status
  • What may a client ask?
  • What may a project manager ask?
  • Answer project specific questions
  • Discuss potential project specific risk
    mitigation strategies

31
Status Reporting Discussion Questions 530 540
  • Why do we give status reports?
  • Why do we document risks and issues?
  • Who might fill out a status report on a project?
  • Who might receive status reports?
  • How might status reports be used on your
    projects?
  • What are some potential benefits to your project
    of using status reports?

32
Interviewing for Information
33
Interviewing for Information
Client Perceptions
34
Food for Thought
Perceptions
Explanation
Rationale
In every meeting I attend I consciously make the
effort to introduce myself to everyone in the
room AND STAND UP
Gives you a presence in the room shows that you
are engaged regardless of whether you have
content expertise
Mr. Social
When I have to visually present something in PPT
or Visio it ALWAYS helps me to sketch it out on
paper first
If I try to start the drawing in software I get
caught up in the appearance and I start editing
too early also helps me get something going/
take a step off the curb
Pencil Stupid
When you roll onto something new take in as much
as you can use basic memorization techniques
and begin to open your mouth only when you know
the call
When you roll onto a project you're not supposed
to know anything practice active listening not
active speaking 2 ears one mouth
SpongeBob SquarePants
It Aint Free Suga
You cost 1200-1400 A DAY
Ask yourself on a daily basis Did my client(s)
get what they paid for?
You signed up for a dynamic environment when you
became a consultant. Dont be surprised when you
get it. Flexibility ALWAYS matters
Roll With It
BE FLEXIBLE
Consultant Guard
ALWAYS keep up a professional front with your
clients the one time you let it down you may
permanently regret it
Never become too comfortable with your clients
remember, you are always on stage
35
Food for Thought (cont.)
Perceptions
Explanation
Rationale
True to life, an impression stays with
peopleespecially clients and co-workers
In our business, we are judged quickly and often
by our initial interactions. Sometimes, clients
and co-workers only see you so often. Reversing a
bad impression can be difficult
First Impressions Last
Always be detailed oriented, even with what seem
to be mundane or routine tasks.
As a new consultant, or new team member, often
you will be given tasks to gauge your style and
abilitymake an effort to be polished, even in
your emailspeople notice and may tailor future
assignments according to this
Devil Is In the Details
People equate value with intensity and effort.
Walk the halls with a purposedo not hang out
Clients expect you to be busy for the hours you
are charging. There will be down time, but stay
active and intensify your busy look when
clients are observingposture and body language
contribute to this
Urgency - Look Busy!
The Sky is Falling!! Get a Net
Recognizing and communicating risk is important.
Equally important is providing mitigation ideas
or solutions
A good consultant will recognize and communicate
risk. A great consultant will also suggest how
to deal with it. Know how to gauge risk and when
possible, provide suggestions for dealing with it
Most of us provide visual indicators regarding
our attitude toward something. Many co-workers
and clients will perceive you based on these
visual indicators. Know how to send the right
message
Attitude Adjustment
Your attitude is visible. Be aware of how you
wear your attitude
Dress for Success
Look good, feel good, do good. Like it or not,
your dress code can influence how you are treated
by clients peers
Dress code is critical. Learn to match your
client environment. Always dress professionally
clients and VPs especially notice this
36
Perceptions
Perceptions
  • Based on input taken from actual staffing calls
    and conversations company wide, here is what we
    heard in terms of positive traits that are sought
    after and improvement areas to be considered
  • Improvement Areas
  • Shows too much emotion
  • Just is not articulate
  • Very junior presence, cant put in front of this
    client
  • Acts young, looks young
  • Too self confident, over inflated ego
  • Needs a lot of direction setting
  • Very risk averse cautious
  • Rough around the edges needs polish
  • Poor communicator
  • Lacks self awareness and emotional intelligence
    cannot dial it up or down based on situation
  • Positive Areas
  • Super Smart Person
  • Hard working, would take them even without
    background on client/solution
  • Strong sense of urgency
  • Broad skills
  • Flexible
  • Mature, older than age
  • High likeability
  • Takes risks
  • Emotionally Intelligent
  • High desire to please hunting dog mentality
  • Imaginative and creative

37
Fundamental Behaviors
  • Exhibit enthusiasm and an appropriate sense of
    urgency to your clients
  • Present yourself professionally - in dress,
    punctuality, and by keeping your commitments
  • Engage in every meeting you attend always know
    your role and contribute as appropriate
  • Be aware of who is in the room - always
    maintain client and Hitachi Consulting
    confidentiality
  • Keep the broader context in mind
  • Take ownership and assume personal responsibility
  • Be flexible find an appropriate way to say yes

Always behave a notch above your clients
expectations. Consulting is rarely a 9-5 job -
10-20 overtime is typical.
38
Objectives
Interview for Info
  • Introduce you to the basics of interviewing
  • How do you prepare for an interview to ensure you
    get the right information?
  • After completing this section you should be able
    to
  • Understand the basic interview types and what
    type is appropriate for each situation
  • Understand and use an interview methodology
  • Prepare for and conduct an interview to collect
    information

39
Agenda
Interview for Info
  • InterviewingThe Basics
  • Choosing the Type of Interview
  • High Value Interviewing Techniques
  • Using an Interview Methodology
  • Conclusion
  • Case Exercise
  • Appendix Gathering Requirements

40
InterviewingThe Basics
Interview for Info
  • Objectives
  • Select the information you would interview for
  • Identify the types of information you might
    expect to obtain
  • Select who you would interview
  • Why Learn This?
  • To get the right information, you need to be
    able to select and organize the information you
    need, then find the people who can give it to you.

41
The BasicsGetting Started
Interview for Info
  • Some Interview Types
  • Employment
  • Counseling
  • Information Gathering
  • Coaching
  • Depositions
  • Performance Reviews
  • Corrective Action
  • Typical Goals
  • Facts
  • Opinions
  • Feelings
  • Statistics
  • Ideas
  • Anecdotes

42
Know what outcome you are trying to achieve
  • The deliverable you are trying to create will
    help you define what information you want to
    gather. Some potential deliverables include
  • Business process maps of current and/or future
    business processes
  • Inventory of business requirements for a new
    system
  • Inventory of business problems related to a
    current business system or process
  • Quantitative data for spreadsheet analysis
  • Once you know what information you need, you can
    determine the best way to structure your
    interview to get it

43
Choosing the Type of Interview
Interview for Info
  • Objectives
  • Describe the difference between a structured and
    unstructured interview.
  • Determine when to use a structured or an
    unstructured interview.
  • Why Learn This?
  • The types of questions you ask influence the
    quality of information you receive. Knowing when
    to use a structured or unstructured interview
    allows you to select the one that will get you
    what you need.

44
Structured Interviews
Interview for Info
  • A set list of questions to cover
  • Planned sequence
  • Little diversion from the structured path to
    the information you want

45
Unstructured Interviews
Interview for Info
  • Established goals, but interviewees allowed to
    explore many different issues, across multiple
    topics
  • Asking few questions, all of which are very
    open-ended
  • Helping the participants to open up, sharing
    lots of information that may not be very focused

46
Comparison of Styles
Interview for Info
STRUCTURED UNSTRUCTURED
The consultant proceeds through a defined sequence of questions. The consultant primes and prompts with a few questions and key issues, but encourages wide-ranging conversation.
The consultant is in full control of the interview at all times. The interviewee may lead the consultant through a variety of issues, more at the interviewees pace. The interviewer cedes more control to the interviewee.
Virtually the identical track will be followed with the next interviewee, to ensure consistency and completeness. A complete picture may only come from the total of the interviewees conducted, as different interviewees may cover different issues.
Structured interviews tend to yield factual, specific answers in response to narrow, specific questions both open and closed questions. Unstructured interviews are more effective at generating feelings and ideas than facts and data people open up more in an unstructured interview.
Efficient, straightforward, less time-consuming than unstructured. Relatively inefficient often many tangents to pursue and extra listening to do.
47
Structured vs. Unstructured
Interview for Info
Advantages Disadvantages
Structured Better control More focus May miss important information left out of structured questions
Unstructured Get more feeling and emotions from people More flexible format Less control Time consuming
48
High Value Interviewing Techniques
Interview for Info
  • Objective
  • Describe selected interviewing techniques and
    explain the value of each.
  • Why Learn This?
  • When planning and conducting interviews, you must
    have a toolbox of techniques to select from.

49
The Interviewing Techniques Toolbox
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Direct Question Seeks specific information. Which positions in the I.S. group do you believe lack clear accountabilities?
What If/ Just Suppose Helps people move beyond their limited, well-defined, present circumstances to consider creative alternatives. What if we could start over? How would you design this system differently? Just suppose budgets were unlimited . . . what could you do to improve the networks performance in the next 18 months?
Summarize Periodically, recap the key points the interviewee has raised. This helps ensure mutual understanding. It also serves as a prompt to elicit more. So if Ive understood you correctly, there are three key issues here funding levels, talent gaps in the group, and the tight deadline. Is that all?
50
The Interviewing Techniques Toolbox
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Reflect Restate whats been said in different words to clarify and elicit more. Youre saying theres a gap in some key skills to get the project done?
Open Question Requires more than a yes or no answer, stimulates thinking, usually begins with what, how, when, why. What recommendations would you have for improving the accuracy of the data at the input stage?
Closed Question Seeks one-word answers closes discussion usually begins with is, can, how many, etc. Do you understand the usage requirements? Do you think the changes are, overall, good or bad? How many times does this happen in an average month?
51
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Pro/Con Ask people to address both sides of an issue, not just one, to help them fully explore the topic. What would be the advantages and the disadvantages, of moving up the deadline? What are two pros and two cons of changing the project team at this stage?
Note Taking We think well remember all the key points but we dont. Notes are essential, especially when conducting multiple interviews. Also, its a sign to the interviewee that you value what they have to offer. It may be beneficial to assign someone from Hitachi Consulting to attend in the role of scribe.
52
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Challenge Keeps interviewees alert that you are not simply taking everything offered without critical thinking. Im having some difficulty with that idea. Would you give me an example or two of how that would work in the real world? Can you cite a few specifics to support your position, or are we working with beliefs only at this stage?
Ice Breaker Starting with hard-edged questions can be intimidating to people, hindering open discussion. But dont spend more than a minute on these ice breakers, or you risk being seen as a time-waster. Sports, weather, etc.
53
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
3-Layered Sequence Macro Business and / or Organization Level People Processes Personal Most problems, or issues, can be explored on three levels, shown at left. Be sure to explore all three when the interviews goal is to get information related to problem solving. It is often easiest for interviewees to explore a problem by moving through the three layers in sequence. Problem Should we invest in new software now, or try to wait two years? Layer One Tell me how you think the current programs help or hurt the company in serving its customers? Layer Two Can you describe how the order fulfillment process in particular suffers? Or the operators who work within the process at different stages? Layer Three How is your work personally affected by this package? What changes would most help you personally to perform at higher levels?
54
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
SAILR (pronounced sailor) Scope Assets Issues Liabilities Recommendations Expert interviewers tend to have a favored track they follow a pattern, or sequence, that helps them move through diagnostic interviews efficiently and smoothly. One of these is the SAILR. Each of the five elements is a topic area, within which specific questions are posed to draw out the interviewee. Scope (Get your bearings) Tell me about the scope of your responsibilities. Assets In looking at your company, or group, what would you cite as their best assets, or strengths? What should we try to build on moving forward? Issues How would you describe the specific issues, or problems, under investigation here? What are the most important questions to be resolved?
55
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
SAILR CONTD (pronounced sailor) Scope Assets Issues Liabilities Recommendations Expert interviewers tend to have a favored track they follow a pattern, or sequence, that helps them move through diagnostic interviews efficiently and smoothly. One of these is the SAILR. Each of the five elements is a topic area, within which specific questions are posed to draw out the interviewee. Liabilities And the converse what are the companys major weaknesses, or liabilities? The things we should be working to improve? Recommendations What specific ideas can you offer to help resolve the issues, or solve the problems?
56
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Work from easy-to-tough, general-to-specific, and neutral-to-contentious This pattern leads interviewees along in a far less threatening way.
Open with clarity Explain the agenda, the content, the objectives, the time, and your expectations for this interview. In the 45-minutes we have this morning, I expect well focus on the data cleanup effort underway. Im particularly interested in your views as to how we could speed up the process to meet our deadline.
57
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Build rapport Use your ice breakers. Dont be afraid of humor, or being a bit casual. Eye contact, tone of voice, and body language are actually far more important than words in building rapport. Trust and comfort are essential ingredients if people are going to open up to you, and their sense of trust and comfort derive from your tone, your eyes, and your overall body language.
Use your body language to advantage Keep solid eye contact and straight-up, Im-interested posture. Dont encroach on the interviewees space.
58
Toolbox (cont.)
Interview for Info
Technique Description Example
Use prompts and probes The first answer you get is rarely all of it. Learn to follow-up on a question, and to prompt more from people on the meaty issues. - Really? Can you be more specific about that? - Thats good, but it would help if you could give me a few examples. - Oh? And then what happened? - And, how did you feel about that?
Convert low-value answers into high-value answers Dont settle for low-value responses. These are too general, or abstract, to give you much useful information. When you get one, use follow-up questions to convert them into high-value responses. Low-Value Examples 1) People are really stressed out about this system. 2) We just dont have enough resources to make that kind of program work here. 3) Customer complaints are higher than anytime before. Things are getting worse.
59
Using an Interview Methodology
Interview for Info
Goals
  • Objective
  • Explain how to use the interview methodology.

People
Logistics
  • Why Learn This?
  • You will want to use this methodology to avoid
    reinventing your processes and to be able to work
    consistently with others at Hitachi Consulting.

Communication
Technique
Script
60
MethodologySet goals
Interview for Info
  • I. Set goals
  • What will you try to get from these interviews?
  • How narrowly focused should you be, versus
    exploring a wider range of issues?
  • What are the minimum outcomes youll need?

Goals
61
MethodologyPlan the people
Interview for Info
  • II. Plan the people
  • Whom should you interview?
  • In what sequence?
  • What do you expect to get from each?
  • Who should lead the interview?

People
62
MethodologyPlan the logistics
Interview for Info
  • III. Plan the logistics
  • When should these interviews occur early or late
    in the week, early or late in the day? How long
    should the interviews go?
  • Where should they be held a neutral site,
    conference room, the interviewees offices?
  • Should the interviews be conducted in group or
    individual sessions?

Logistics
63
MethodologyPlan the logistics
Interview for Info
  • III. Plan the logistics
  • How many consultants need to participate in the
    interview? Include such factors as
  • What skill sets need to be represented
  • What industry experience should be present
  • What roles need to be played
  • What relationships exist
  • How the presence of certain individuals will
    affect the information gathered

Logistics
64
MethodologyCommunicate
Interview for Info
  • IV. Communicate
  • What should participants know in advance to
    maximize the results agenda, expected outcomes,
    topic areas, timing and location?
  • Who will notify participants that they have been
    selected for interviewing Hitachi Consulting,
    the client?
  • What is the best time and medium to communicate
    to people?
  • Do re-cap and indicate action items.
  • Dont avoid questions.
  • Use silence.

Communication
65
MethodologySelect type techniques
Interview for Info
  • V. Select type and techniques
  • Given the situation and the nature of the
    participants, which interview type (structured or
    unstructured, or hybrid) and techniques (from the
    toolbox) will work best for you?

Technique
66
MethodologyScript your part
Interview for Info
  • Script your part
  • What is your introduction/opening how will you
    clearly explain goals, conduct, timing,
    note-taking protocol, etc.?
  • What are your core questions the ones you want
    to be sure are asked and answered?
  • What is the best sequence for your interview
    content how will you move from
    general-to-specific, neutral-to-contentious,
    easy-to-tough?
  • What questions will take you through the
    3-layered sequence (see the previous section for
    details on this technique), from organization
    level, to people and processes, to the personal
    level?

Script
67
MethodologyScript your part
Interview for Info
  • Script your part
  • What is your closing how will you end the
    interview in a positive way? Are there next steps
    to outline, or follow-ups to be scheduled?

Script
68
Other Tips
Interview for Info
  • Note Taking
  • Always tell the interviewee that you are going to
    take notes
  • Create a note-taking template
  • Use delayed note taking with sensitive
    information
  • Schedule at least 15-30 minutes between
    interviews to write and review notes
  • If alone
  • When writing, try to keep notes brief and use
    your memory
  • Dont be afraid to stop the interview to clarify
    what you heard
  • If you are the scribe in a team interview write
    word-for-word (within reason)
  • Send notes to interviewee for review to make sure
    you got it

69
Other Tips
Interview for Info
  • Be Prepared
  • Bring a copy of the agenda and objectives
  • Prepare an introduction to your project
  • Provide business cards
  • Prepare questions that are direct and meaningful
  • Bring a notebook and two pens
  • Make sure you are appropriately dressed (at least
    as nice as the interviewee)
  • Discuss next steps and required follow-up

70
Organizing Your Interview Results
Interview for Info
  • Youve Interviewed All of Them ... Now What?
  • When the interviews are done, what will you do
    with the results? If youve been effective,
    youll likely be overwhelmed with information in
    many forms (documents handed to you, ideas,
    feelings, recommendations, etc.). What to do next?
  • Debrief with another team member
  • Organize your information
  • Use high-value tools to evaluate

71
Gathering Requirements
Interview for Info
  • Requirements gathering is one of the primary
    outcomes of interviews that we conduct
  • See the Appendix of this deck for more
    information on requirements gathering

72
Gathering Requirements
Interview for Info
  • Objective
  • To introduce user-oriented approaches to
    gathering requirements.
  • Why Learn This?
  • User-oriented requirements gathering techniques
    help uncover the real requirements and
    differentiate them from the gathered
    requirements.

73
The Spin Genie Technique
Interview for Info
  • What is the SPIN Genie technique?
  • SPIN Genie is a questioning technique used to
    uncover and crystallize issues and problems into
    real system requirements
  • SPIN Genie is most useful at the beginning of
    requirements gathering to help define which
    systems or solutions you need to concentrate on
    defining in more detail using Drill Down
  • SPIN Genie can be used both horizontally and
    vertically although horizontally is recommended
  • What are the key concepts?
  • SPIN is an acronym and represents four different
    types of questions that can be asked during a
    requirements gathering session
  • Situation questions are about the interviewees
    current situation
  • Problem questions probe for issues and problems
  • Implication questions uncover the full
    implication of each problem and issue
  • Need questions crystallize the interviewees
    requirements into needs, which are used for
    solution recommendations later
  • The Genie portion of this technique is one final
    question to ask to help understand what the three
    biggest requirements are so that recommendations
    can be prioritized and a solution can be achieved
    later on

The Spin Genie Technique quickly and
effectively uncovers and crystallizes issues and
problems into system requirements and needs
74
The Spin Genie Technique
Interview for Info
  • How is it performed?
  • The first step is to schedule an interview or
    requirements gathering session and explain the
    objectives of the meeting
  • Once the objectives are clear, begin the SPIN
    Genie technique with situation questions (see the
    following page for examples)
  • After there is a good understanding of the
    current situation, start probing for issues and
    problems with problem questions
  • Now that a good list of issues and problems is
    compiled, start probing further using implication
    questions
  • At this point, the interviewee will have realized
    the problems they are facing and the need
    questions can be asked
  • Once all issues have been uncovered, and
    implications and needs explored, ask the Genie
    question
  • Document all of the findings and prioritize the
    needs for further investigation and requirements
    gathering

75
The Spin Genie Framework consists of five key
components
Interview for Info
COMPONENT QUESTIONS
Situation How are you currently handling product requests now? How many resources do you currently have staffed to support this process? What tools are you currently using to achieve your objective?
Problem Are you having any problems with the tools that you are using? How does your staff feel about the current process that is in place? What kind of support issues do you have to deal with from day to day? Do you find that you cant handle all of the requests?
Implication So, if the process is cumbersome, I guess your customers get irritated and complain? Are you losing customers to competitors because of the current process? How many requests are lost per day?
Need Would I be right in thinking that if a more efficient method was implemented you would solve a lot of your problems? So, you either need a more advanced tool or a complete reengineering of the process? Obviously having a better tool will also help address some of the staff morale issues, but do you also see a need for a new business process
Genie If I was a genie and granted you three wishes that you could use to help make your life easier at work, what three things would you wish for?
76
In Summary
Interview for Info
  • Know your audience
  • Select the appropriate type of interview
  • Information Gathering will be most frequently
    used
  • Structured vs. Unstructured
  • Use the Interviewing Techniques Toolbox to plan
    your interview approach
  • Use the Interview Methodology
  • Helps avoid reinventing the wheel on every
    project
  • Helps ensure consistency in approach across
    Hitachi Consulting

77
Interviewing for Information Mock Exercise
(550 620)
  • TBD

78
Interviewing for Information Discussion
Questions (620 - 630)
  • Key Points
  • Why do we do interviews?
  • What are key considerations prior to an
    interview?
  • What can you do to make interviews more
    effective?
  • What determines the audience for an interview?
  • How can this be applied to your project?

79
  • Dinner Break
  • 630 700

80
Root Cause Analysis
81
Tools Snapshot Root Cause Analysis (Fishbone
Diagrams)
Root Cause Analysis
  • What is Root Cause Analysis?
  • Technique to explore complex problems thoroughly
  • May utilize Cause Effect Diagrams (a.k.a.
    Fishbone Diagrams) to think through the causes of
    a problem thoroughly
  • May utilize other sorting and grouping techniques
    to think through the causes of a problem
    thoroughly
  • What are the Benefits of Root Cause Analysis?
  • Allows full decomposition of a problem allowing
    for consideration of all possible causes, not
    just the obvious ones
  • This tool is great for grouping ideas together
    and is also beneficial to figure out what to
    target next for more detail
  • It facilitates further analysis and examination
    of the identified causes and aids in
    prioritization activities

82
Process Overview
Root Cause Analysis
  1. Validate Problem Statement
  2. Brainstorm cause and effect
  3. Group into Cause Categories
  4. Apply Root Cause Analysis

    via Fishbone Diagramming
  5. Develop Key Findings Linkages
  6. Prioritize top 3 causes with highest impacts
  7. Develop Recommendations on top 3

83
Client Example Root Cause Analysis (Fishbone
Diagram)
Root Cause Analysis
The client
84
Client Example Root Cause Analysis Key
Findings
Root Cause Analysis
  • Strategic Direction
  • Lack of project portfolio management
  • Too internally focused vs customer/market focused
  • Non actionable and unfocused strategic measures
  • Environmental Barriers
  • Highly resistant to change blame, fear, passive
  • Complexity Mindset
  • Accountability subset of environmental but key
    cause factor
  • Lack of mid-management involvement
  • Unclear business ownership
  • Perceived lack of strong leadership
  • People/Organization
  • Ineffective organizational structure silos
  • Lack of communication due to silos
  • IT vs business
  • Project Execution
  • Lack of project management methodology and skills
  • Limited understanding of impact of projects
  • Lack of expectation management
  • Poor resource management
  • Improper use of consulting resources

85
Client Example Root Cause Analysis -
Prioritization Results
Root Cause Analysis
  • Start with Strategy
  • Align Organization
  • Develop and drive Accountability
  • Will result in changes to the environment and
    ability to focus on project execution instead of
    continually battling environmental factors

86
Tools Snapshot Root Cause Analysis (Affinity
Approach)
Root Cause Analysis
  1. Develop your Problem Statement/Hypothesis
  2. Gets the juices flowing helps you think through
    the approach you need to take
  3. Validate your Hypothesis
  4. Focus Interviews
  5. Focus Groups
  6. Independent Research Benchmarking
  7. Document all Issues
  8. Who loves to take notes? -Basic note taking
    during interviews will do amazing things to build
    the need for your case later on
  9. Nothing is too anecdotal if your client
    communicates it theres probably a root cause in
    there somewhere document it all
  10. Affinitize the issues
  11. Use logic to group similar issues
  12. Document and be able to defend your logic
  13. Determine Root Cause of Issue Grouping
  14. Brainstorm potential solutions to Root Cause
  15. Lean on your colleagues for help
  16. Present Options

87
Tools Snapshot Root Cause Analysis Exercise
710 730
Root Cause Analysis
  • Review the issues provided to you
  • Issues TBD
  • Apply the Fishbone or basic affinity approach to
    determine root causes
  • Brainstorm Solution Options

88
Team / Project Q A (730 800)
  • Discussion/QA session

89
Thank You
  • Thanks for joining us this evening!!
  • Please forward all Benefits / Concerns from
    tonight to Jim Marlatt
  • What was done well?
  • What could have been done better?
  • What suggestions do you have for the next
    session?
  • Please feel free to contact me, or any of the
    other Hitachi Consulting Representatives with any
    questions
  • ROrton_at_hitachiconsulting.com

90
Question and Answer Session
Hitachi Consulting Panel
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