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Buddhism

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Revised, 10/5/06; updated, 8/25/15 Buddhism The Rise and Development of Buddhism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Buddhism


1
Buddhism
Revised, 10/5/06 updated, 8/25/15
  • The Rise and Development of Buddhism

2
Indian Religion in the 6th 5th centuries BC
Brahmins - priestly ritual religion
  • Hinduism
  • Jainism

Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation yoga
Yoga combined with extreme asceticism
nonviolence
3
The BuddhaSiddhartha Gautama(563-483 BC)
  • Birth
  • Youth
  • Marriage parenthood
  • The Four Passing Sights (aging, sickness, death,
    renunciation)
  • The Great Renunciation
  • The Great Going Forth
  • The Great Enlightenment
  • The Great Ministry
  • The Great Decease

4
Origin of Buddhism
Spread of Buddhism during the lifetime of the
Buddha
5
The Three Refuges(Jewels)
  • The Buddha
  • The Dharma (teachings, doctrine)
  • The Sangha (the Order)

6
The Teachings of the Buddha
  • The Four Noble Truths

7
Preface to the Four Noble TruthsThe Middle Path
  • Two extremes to be avoided
  • (1) Hedonism
  • (2) Asceticism

By avoiding these two extremes, we discover a
Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which
bestows understanding, and which leads to peace
of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to
Nirvana.
This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path,
namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech,
Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort,
Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration . . .
.
8
1. The Noble Truth of Suffering
Dukkha
9
2. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering
Tanha
Some traditions make (c) a craving for
prosperity or for personal happiness.
10
3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering
Nirvana
11
4. The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the
cessation of suffering
Astapada
12
Elaboration of the Noble Eightfold Path
  • Right views (Samma ditthi)
  • Right intent (Samma sankappa)
  • Right speech (Samma vaca)
  • Right conduct (Samma kammanta)
  • Right livelihood (Samma ajiva)
  • Right effort (Samma vayama)
  • Right mindfulness (Samma sati)
  • Right concentration (Samma samadhi)

Wisdom (prajna)
Morality (sila)
Meditation (samadhi)
13
1. Right Views
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Wisdom
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • The doctrine of no-self (anatta, anatman)
  • Transitoriness (anicca) impermanence
  • The Five Components or Aggregates (skandhas) of
    human personhood
  • Interdependent Origination
  • Karma Samsara (rebirth)
  • Nirvana (what is it?)

14
The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood
(No-self, cont'd)
Body (rupa)
Person
Sensation (vedana) Consciousness
(vinnana) Perception (sanna) Volition (sankhara)
Mind (nama)
15
It is through the five skandhas (components,
attributes)
  • that a human being typically clings to existence
    and, as a result, becomes subject to suffering
    (dukkha).

Knowing and seeing the nature of, the origin of,
and how to extinguish (end) the five components
of body corporeality, sensation, consciousness,
perception, and volition brings about the
cessation of selfish craving.
16
So
  • a "person" is composed of five components four
    "mind" components - sensation, consciousness,
    perception, volition and one physical component,
    i.e., the body. That's all a "person" is.
  • And, like anything else, these components are
    constantly changing (transitory and impermanent).
  • Note that on the list of the five "skandhas"
    (components), there is no "self," especially no
    unchanging, permanent, eternal Self (Atman).

17
The doctrine ofInterdependent Origination(Paticc
a Samuppada)
(No-self, cont'd)
  • The interdependence relativity of all things

No separate beings No distinct individuals No
eternal essences No "own-natures"
18
According to the doctrine of interdependent
origination,
  • all things arise, develop, and dissolve in
    relation to and in interdependence with (or
    dependence on) all other things.
  • Nothing has an independent (non-relative),
    individual, or permanent existence.
  • Thus, there is no separate, individual,
    unchanging, or eternal Self.

19
The
12.
1.
Aging Dying
Ignorance
2.
11.
Wheel of
Impulse to Exist
Birth
Heaven
3.
10.
Con- scious- ness
Human Realm
Demon Realm
Becom- ing
Greed Delusion Hatred
Bhavachakra
4.
9.
Hungry Ghost Realm
Animal Realm
Mind- Body
Cling- ing
Note that the Wheel is driven by the "Three Great
Poisons" at the center greed, delusion, hatred.
Becoming
5.
8.
Six Senses
Hell
Craving
6.
7.
Contact
Sensations
20
Bhava
chakra
21
2. Right Intent(Resolution)
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Wisdom
  • Right intent or resolution
  • is the intent or resolution to live act
  • in accordance with right views.

22
3. Right Speech
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Morality
  • No lying
  • No slander
  • No harsh or rude talk
  • No profanity
  • No impolite or abusive language
  • No idle or foolish chatter
  • Strive to use language meaningfully usefully,
    with wisdom kindness
  • Learn to maintain "noble silence"

23
4. Right Conduct
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Morality
  • Eat moderately not after noon.
  • Stay away from dancing, singing, dramatic
    spectacles.
  • Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or
    ornaments.
  • Do not use high or broad (soft) beds.
  • Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?).
  • No harming killing
  • No stealing
  • No lying deceitfulness
  • No sexual immorality
  • No use of intoxicants

The Five Precepts (for everybody) the Ten
Precepts (for monks nuns)
24
5. Right Livelihood(Vocation)
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Morality
  • Choose professions that promote life, peace,
    spiritual progress (especially life in the
    Sangha).
  • Specifically prohibited professions poison
    peddler, slave trader, prostitute, butcher,
    manufacturer trader of liquor other
    intoxicants, weapons manufacturer trader, tax
    collector, caravan trader.

25
6. Right Effort(purification of the mind)
(Eightfold Path, continued)
  • Preventing evil unwholesome states of mind from
    arising
  • Getting rid of such states of mind that may
    already exist
  • Bringing about good wholesome states of mind
  • Developing perfecting good wholesome states
    of mind that are already present

Meditation
26
7. Right Mindfulness
Meditation
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Focusing of attention on
  • Activities of the body (breathing, walking,
    sitting, eating, heartbeat, etc.)
  • Feelings (anger, fear, joy, pleasure, pain, etc.)
  • States of mind (thoughts, ideas, etc.)
  • Ways of conceptualizing things (the Four Noble
    Truths, the Wheel of Becoming, etc.)

27
8. Right Concentration
The highest level of Meditation
(Eightfold Path, continued)
  • One-pointed concentration
  • and
  • the four absorptions
  • Detachment from all sense objects from negative
    states of mind thought processes accompanied by
    joy
  • Cessation of all mental activities internal
    calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great
    elation
  • Cessation of all passions prejudices continued
    sense of joy
  • Cessation of joy total tranquillity equanimity
    -- Nirvana ( arhatship)

Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime
Moods love, compassion, cheerfulness,
impartiality
28
Four Stages of Advancementalong the Noble
Eightfold Path
The Ten Fetters
  • 1 Belief in permanent self
  • 2 Doubt
  • 3 Belief in religious rituals
  • 4 Sensual craving
  • 5 Ill will
  • 6 Desire for rebirth in worlds of form
  • 7 Desire for rebirth in formless realms
  • 8 Pride
  • 9 Self-righteousness
  • 10 Ignorance of the true nature of things

Stream- Entrant
Once- Returner
Non- Returner
Overcomes 1-3
Overcomes 1-5
Arhat
Overcomes all
29
The Historical Evolution
  • of Buddhism

30
The Major Buddhist Traditions
  • Theravada ("The Way of the Elders") - Sri Lanka
    Southeast Asia
  • Mahayana ("The Greater Vehicle") - China, Korea,
    Japan ( Tibet Mongolia)
  • Vajrayana ("The Way of the Diamond Thunderbolt")
    - Tibet Mongolia




Vajrayana is a development within the Mahayana
tradition.
31
The Early Schools
  • the Rise of Theravada
  • (4th century BC - 1st century AD)

32
Council at Rajagraha (483BC)
Council at Vaisali (383 BC)
Sthaviravada
Mahasamghika
Council at Pataliputta (247 BC)
Vibhajyavada
Sarvastivada
(c. 225 BC)
(c. 200 BC)
Theravada
Vatsiputriya
Golulika
Ekavyavaharika
Sammatiya Bhadrayamiya Dharmottariya Sammagurika
Lokottaravada
(c. 180 BC)
Bahushrutiya
Prajnaptivada
Mahisasaka Kasyapiya Dharmaguptaka
(c. 125 BC)
(c. 100 BC)


Vaibheshika
Sautrantika

Caitika
(c. 50 BC)
Uttarashaila
Aparashaila

Contributed to rise of Mahayana
33
The Rise Development
  • of Mahayana ( Vajrayana)

34
Mahayana Buddhism
India
China
Japan
Tibet

Madhyamaka (2d-3d centuries AD)
Three Treatise School
San-lun
Sanron
Ashvaghosa (1st century AD)
Consciousness-Only

Yogacara (3d-4th centuries AD)
Mei-shih
Hosso
Tantrayana (3d century AD)
Chen-yen
Shingon (True Word)
Vajrayana(a/k/a Tantrayana Mantrayana)
Jodo-shu Jodo-shin-shu
Sukhavati (Pure Land) (1st century AD)
Ching-tu
Ch'an Ti'en-Tai (Lotus) Hua-yen (Flower Graland)
Zen Tendai Nicheren Shoshu
Nagarjuna Vasubandhu
35
The Spread of Buddhism
Spheres of Influence

Buddhism out of India by 1000 AD

Theravada
Mahayana
Vajrayana
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