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John Locke


John Locke Two Treatises on Civil Government (1689) H-SS 11.1.1- Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: John Locke

John Locke Two Treatises on Civil Government
  • H-SS 11.1.1- Describe the Enlightenment and the
    rise of democratic ideas as the context in which
    the nation was founded

  • John Locke wrote Treatises on Civil Government.
  • This writing reflects the ideology of the
    Glorious Revolution. Forces of Parliament had
    won and they selected William Mary as their new
  • The Glorious Revolution limited the power of the
    Royal Family and forced them to live by the Magna
    Carta and the (English) Bill of Rights.

John Locke had a positive view of Human Nature
  • He believed mankind was
  • Good
  • Moral
  • Honest
  • Reasonable

Humans in Nature
  • Humans born with natural rights to
  • Life
  • Liberty
  • Property - Dec. of Independence changed to the

  • Pursuit of Happiness Property Happiness
  • Rights came from God or nature not the govt, so
    govt can not take them away, which makes them

Social Contract
  • Govt gets its authority to rule from the people.
  • Govt exists to protect your natural rights
    (life, liberty, and property).
  • If it fails the people have a Right to Revolution

Our country was founded on the idea that if our
government fails to protect our rights we have
the right to get rid of it or change it to make
it better
  • Right to Revolution-people have the right or duty
    to rebel if govt fails to protect their rights
  • --This is the driving force of our Political
  • It can happen two ways

Two Ways of Revolution
  • Peaceful Change- government changes as citizens
    recognize problem(s) and correct them w/o
    changing govt. Citizens vote to change the

  • When the system fails to react to problems or
    when govt becomes unjust citizens will riot or
    start open rebellions.
  • During Revolutionary War period people tried to
    peacefully change system when it failed they
    started the war

Declaration of Independence
  • Written by Thomas Jefferson. It is based on John
    Lockes philosophies as written in Two Treatises
    on Civil Government
  • It described unalienable natural rights, social
    contract, and the right to revolution
  • It was an expression of what the colonists
    believed were their rights as English subjects

  • Declaration of Independence
  • Unalienable natural rights-cannot be taken away
  • Social contract-govt gets authority to rule from
    the people
  • Right to revolution-if govt fails to protect
    natural rights then the people have the right to
    change or replace the govt

Written by Thomas Jefferson based on ideas Of
John Locke
  • Declaration of Independence

  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
    rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of
    the governed, That whenever any Form of
    Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
    is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
    it, and to institute new Government, laying its
    foundation on such principles and organizing its
    powers in such form, as to them shall seem most
    likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
    Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
    long established should not be changed for light
    and transient causes and accordingly all
    experience hath shewn that mankind are more
    disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable
    than to right themselves by abolishing the forms
    to which they are accustomed. But when a long
    train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing
    invariably the same Object evinces a design to
    reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their
    right, it is their duty, to throw off such
    Government, and to provide new Guards for their
    future security. Such has been the patient
    sufferance of these Colonies and such is now the
    necessity which constrains them to alter their
    former Systems of Government. The history of the
    present King of Great Britain is a history of
    repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in
    direct object the establishment of an absolute
    Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
    Facts be submitted to a candid world.
  • Read the Declaration of Independence-the areas
    marked in red reflect John Lockes ideas and the
    beliefs about government that all British subject
    held at the time of our revolution.