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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An ... Levels of Study Levels of Structural Organization Organ System Overview Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation


1
  • Chapter 1The Human BodyAn Orientation

2
The Human Body An Orientation
  • Anatomy study of the structure and shape of the
    body and its parts
  • Physiology study of how the body and its parts
    work or function

3
Anatomy Levels of Study
  • Gross Anatomy
  • Large structures
  • Easily observable
  • Microscopic Anatomy
  • Very small structures

4
Levels of Structural Organization
5
Organ System Overview
  • Integumentary
  • Forms the external body covering
  • Protects deeper tissue from injury

6
Skeletal
  • Protects and supports body organs
  • Provides muscle attachment for movement

7
Muscular
  • Allows locomotion
  • Maintains posture
  • Produces heat

8
Nervous
  • Fast-acting control system
  • Responds to internal and external change

9
Endocrine
  • Secretes regulatory hormones
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Metabolism

10
Cardiovascular
  • Made of blood vessels and the heart.
  • Transports gasses, nutrients, waste products,
    hormones, etc through the body.

11
Lymphatic
  • Returns fluids to blood vessels
  • Disposes of debris
  • Involved in immunity

12
Respiratory
  • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
  • Removes carbon dioxide

13
Digestive
  • Breaks down food
  • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood
  • Eliminates indigestible material

14
Urinary
  • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
  • Maintains acid base balance
  • Regulation of materials
  • Water /Electrolytes

15
Reproductive
  • Production of offspring

16
Necessary Life Functions
  • Movement
  • Maintain Boundaries
  • Responsiveness
  • Digestion
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion
  • Reproduction
  • Growth

17
Survival Needs
  • Nutrients
  • Oxygen
  • Water
  • Stable body temperature
  • Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate

18
Maintaining Homeostasis
  • The body communicates through neural and hormonal
    control systems
  • Receptor
  • Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)
  • Sends information to control center

19
Control center
  • Determines set point
  • Analyzes information
  • Determines appropriate response

20
Effector
  • Provides a means for response to the stimulus

21
Negative feedback
  • Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms
  • Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its
    intensity
  • Works like a household thermostat

22
Positive feedback
  • Increases the original stimulus to push the
    variable farther
  • In the body this only occurs in blood clotting
    and birth of a baby
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