Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System


1
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System
2
Cardiovascular System
  • Also circulatory system
  • Consists of the heart, arteries, veins,
    capillaries

3
Heart
  • Four chamber muscular organ
  • Comparable to the size of a closed fist
  • Located in the mediastinum

4
Heart
5
Coverings of the Heart
  • Pericardium loose fitting sac surrounding the
    heart
  • Fibrous pericardium tough, loose-fitting,
    inelastic
  • Serous pericardium
  • Parietal layer lines the inside of the fibrous
    pericardium
  • Visceral layer adheres to outside of the heart
  • Pericardial space between parietal and visceral
    layer
  • Filled with 10-15mL of pericardial fluid
  • Decreases friction

6
Walls of the Heart
  • Epicardium outer layer
  • Epicardium serous pericardium
  • Myocardium thick, contractile layer composed of
    cardiac muscle cells
  • Endocaridium interior of cardiac wall

7
Walls of the Heart
8
Chambers of the Heart
  • Atria two superior chambers
  • Receiving chambers
  • Blood from veins enters atria
  • Ventricles two inferior chambers
  • pumping chambers
  • Separated by interventricular septum

9
Valves of the Heart
  • Permit blood flow in one direction during
    circulation
  • Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
  • Also cuspid valves
  • Between atria and ventricles
  • Semilunar (SL valves)
  • Between ventricles and vessles

10
Chambers Valves
Trace the blood flow through the heart
11
Blood Supply to the Heart
  • After traveling through the capillaries of the
    heart, blood empties into the Right atrium via
    the vena cavas

12
Conduction System of the Heart
  • Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
  • Pacemaker of the heart
  • 100s of cells in the R atrium near the opening of
    the superior vena cava
  • Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)
  • Left lower border of R atrium

13
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Artery carries oxygenated blood away from the
    heart
  • Arteriole small artery
  • Precapillary sphincters regulate the blood flow
    into capillaries

14
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Vein carries unoxygenated blood towards the
    heart
  • Venules small vein

15
Types of Blood Vessels
16
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Capillaries arterial system switches to venous
    system
  • primary exchange vessels
  • Transport materials to and from the cells
  • Speed of blood flow decreases to increase contact
    time

17
Types of Blood Vessels
18
Structure of Blood Vessels
  • Tunica adventitia - outermost layer
  • Fibrous connective tissue
  • Holds vessels open prevents tearing of vessels
    walls during body movements
  • Larger in veins than arteries
  • Tunica media middle layer
  • Smooth muscle and elastic CT
  • Helps vessels constrict and dilate
  • Larger in arteries

19
Structure of Blood Vessels
  • Tunica intima innermost layer
  • Composed of endothelium
  • Semilunar valves present in veins
  • One cell thick in capillaries

20
Circulatory Routes
  • Systemic Circulation blood flow from the L
    ventricle to the body back to the R atrium
  • Pulmonary Circulation blood flow from the R
    ventricle to the lungs and back to the L atrium

21
Circulatory Routes
22
Aorta
23
Systemic Arteries
  • Arch of aorta
  • Subclavian (L and R)
  • Brachiocephalic
  • common carotid (L and R)
  • Axillary (L and R)
  • Brachial (L and R)
  • Radial
  • Ulnar
  • Abdominal aorta
  • Common iliac
  • External iliac
  • Femoral
  • Popliteal
  • Posterior tibial
  • Anterior tibial
  • Dorsal pedis

24
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25
Systemic Veins
  • Superior vena cava
  • Inferior vena cava
  • External jugular
  • Internal jugular
  • Brachiocephalic (L and R)
  • Subclavian (L and R)
  • Cephalic
  • axillary
  • Basilic
  • Median basilic
  • Median cubital
  • Common iliac
  • External iliac
  • Femoral
  • Popliteal
  • Great saphenous
  • Small saphenous

26
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27
Pericardium Disorders
  • Pericarditis inflammation of the heart
  • Causes trauma, viral or bacteria infection,
    tumor
  • Edema causes visceral and parietal layers to rub
    together chest pain
  • Pus or blood build up in pericardial space
  • S/S
  • Pain with respirations or coughing, dyspnea,
    restlessness
  • Complications Pericardial Effusion, Cardiac
    Tamponade
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics, pain meds, antiinflammatory meds,
    pericardiocentesis (Cardiac Tamponade)

28
Heart Valve Disorders
  • General Principles
  • Congenital defect decreased pumping efficiency
  • Incompetent valve leak allows backflow into
    previous chamber
  • Stenosed valves narrowed valve slowing blood
    from out of chamber

29
Heart Valve Disorders
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
  • Flaps of mitral valve extend back into L atrium
    causes leaking
  • Mostly genetic basis
  • 1 in 20 people
  • S/S most asymptomatic chest pain, fatigue
  • Treatment valvuloplasty

30
Mitral Valve Prolapse
31
Heart Valve Disorders
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Blood leaks back into L ventricle during ejection
    into the aorta
  • Volume overload in L ventricle, hypertrophy,
    dilation of L ventricle
  • Complications myocaridal ischemia
  • Treatment valvuloplasty

32
Myocardium Disorders
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Type of arteriosclerosis
  • Lipids build up on the inside of vessel walls ?
    calcify ? vessels hard brittle
  • Risk factors cigarette smoking, high
    fat/cholesterol diet, hypertension

33
Atherosclerosis
34
Myocardium Disorders
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Heart Attack
  • Coronary thrombosis clot
  • Coronary embolism mobilized clot
  • Occlude coronary artery ? heart tissue deprived
    of oxygen ? cell death
  • S/S
  • Angina pectoris severe chest pain resulting
    from inadequate oxygen to myocardium
  • Treatment Coronary Bypass Surgery
  • Veins are harvested from other areas of the body
    and used to bypass obstructions

35
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36
Myocardium Disorders
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
  • Left-sided Heart Failure
  • Inability of the L ventricle to pump blood
    efficiently
  • Causes myocardial infarction
  • S/S decreased pumping pressure in systemic
    circulation retained fluids
  • Can lead to congestion in pulmonary circulation ?
    pulmonary edema ? right-sided heart failure
  • Treatment heart transplant

37
Congestive Heart Failure
38
Myocardium Disorders
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
  • Leading cause of death in US
  • General term to describe decreased blood flow to
    myocardium associated side effects

39
Disorders of the Arteries
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Arteries become occluded, weak and hardened
  • Complications ischemia, necrosis, gangrene
  • Risk factors age, diabetes, high fat/cholesterol
    diet, hypertension, smoking
  • Treatment vasodilators, angioplasty, stent
    placement, bypass surgery
  • Complications aneurysm

40
Angioplasty
41
Disorders of Veins
  • Varicose Veins
  • Enlarged veins caused by pooling
  • Results in varicosities or varices (spider
    veins)
  • Risk factors standing for long periods
  • Semilunar valves widen ? more pooling
  • Treatment compression stockings, surgical removal

42
Varicose Veins
43
Disorders of Veins
  • Phlebitis vein inflammation
  • Causes irritation by IV catheter
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Phlebitis caused by a clot
  • S/S
  • Pain, redness, swelling
  • Complications
  • Pulmonary embolism

44
DVT
45
Pulmonary Embolism
46
Venous Stasis Ulcers
  • Result of chronic vein insufficiency
  • Lack of oxygen to peripheral tissues
  • Elevate leg apply pressure
  • Irregular edges
  • Aching pain
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