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Prof.C.Vignali PhD

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Prof.C.Vignali PhD Consumer Attitude Formation and Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prof.C.Vignali PhD


1
Prof.C.Vignali PhD
  • Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

2
Attitudes
A learned predisposition to behave in a
consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with
respect to a given object.
3
What are Attitudes?
  • The attitude object
  • Attitudes are a learned predisposition
  • Attitudes have consistency
  • Attitudes occur within a situation

4
Table 8.1 Examples of How Situations Might
Influence Attitudes
PRODUCT/SERVICE
ATTITUDE
SITUATION
Coppertone Oil Free Sunscreen
It sounds like a good idea to use an oil free
sunscreen when involved in summer sports
activities.
Active sports in the sun
Cannon Color Printers
Now that they have gone down in price so much,
its time for me to buy a color printer.
Old PC printer ceases to work
Hilton Resorts and Casinos
I worked hard I earned a couple of days away to
relax.
Exhausted, time or a weekend get-a-way
Altoids Mints
I really need a strong mint after I drink a
large cup of coffee.
Bad taste in ones mouth
5
Table 8.1 continued
PRODUCT/SERVICE
ATTITUDE
SITUATION
Sports Illustrated for Kids
He loves sports I should get a one-year
subscription.
Its my nephews birthday
Omega Seamaster Professional
Now I have an opportunity to get the watch James
Bond wears.
Old wristwatch is lost
Claritin-D 24 Hour
I need something that really works. Ive heard
good things about Claritin.
Summer allergy
Kraft Free Salad Dressing
I really should try using more fat-free
products.
Going on a diet
6
Structural Models of Attitudes
  • Tricomponent Attitude Model
  • Muliattribute Attitude Models
  • The Trying-to-Consume Model
  • Attitude-toward-the-ad Model

7
Figure 8.1 A Simple Representation of the
Tricomponent Attitude Model
Conation
Affect
Cognition
8
The Tricomponent Model
  • Cognitive Component
  • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired
    by a combination of direct experience with the
    attitude object and related information from
    various sources.
  • Affective Component
  • A consumers emotions or feelings about a
    particular product or brand.
  • Conative Component
  • The likelihood or tendency that an individual
    will undertake a specific action or behave in a
    particular way with regard to the attitude object

9
Figure 8.2 A Consumers Belief System for Two
Brands of Pocket Digital Organizers
PRODUCT
POCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERS
BRAND
3Com PalmPilot
ATTRIBUTES
Ease of use
Handwriting feature
PC backup
Other features
BELIEFS
Known to be a snap to use
A little effort to learn a few rules
Simple one button
Doesnt have built-in drawing feature
EVALUATIONS
()
()
()
(-)
10
Figure 8.2 continued
PRODUCT
POCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERS
BRAND
Casio Cassiopeia
ATTRIBUTES
Ease of use
Handwriting feature
PC backup
Other features
BELIEFS
A longer learning curve
Easy, but a little learning
Some learning
Has drawing and voice-record features
EVALUATIONS
()
()
()
()
11
Table 8.2 Selected Evaluations Scale Used to
Gauge Consumers Attitudes toward Old Spice After
Shave
Compared to other after shave products,Old Spice
is
Good Positive Pleasant Appealing
1 1 1 1
Bad Negative Unpleasant Unappealing
2 22 2
3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6
7 7 7 7
12
Table 8.3 Measuring Consumers Feelings and
Emotions with Regard to Using Old Spice After
Shave
For the past 10 days you have had a chance to try
Old Spice After Shave. We would appreciate it if
you would identify how your face felt after using
the product during this 10-day trial period. For
each of the words below, we would appreciate it
if you would mark with an X in the box
corresponding to how your face felt after using
Old Spice during the past 10 days.
VERY
NOT AT ALL
My face felt relaxed My face felt handsome My
face felt tight My face felt smooth My face felt
supple My face felt clean My face felt
refreshed My face felt revived My face felt
pampered My face felt renewed





13
Table 8.4 Two Examples of Intention-to-Buy Scales
Which of the following statements best describes
the chance that you will buy Old Spice the next
time you purchase an after shave product? ___I
definitely will buy it. ___I probably will buy
it. ___I am uncertain whether I will buy it. ___I
probably will not buy it. ___I definitely will
not buy it.
How likely are you to buy Old Spice After Shave
during the next three months? ___Very
likely ___Likely ___Unlikely ___Very unlikely
14
Multiattribute Attitude Models
Attitude models that examine the composition of
consumer attitudes in terms of selected product
attributes or beliefs.
15
Multiattribute Attitude Models
  • The attitude-toward-object model
  • Attitude is function of evaluation of
    product-specific beliefs and evaluations
  • The attitude-toward-behavior model
  • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with
    respect to an object, rather than the attitude
    toward the object itself
  • Theory-of-reasoned-action model
  • A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes

16
Attitude-Toward-Behavior Model
A model that proposes that a consumers attitude
toward a specific behavior is a function of how
strongly he or she believes that the action will
lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or
unfavorable).
17
Theory of Reasoned Action
A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship
among attitudes,intentions, and behavior.
18
Figure 8.3 A Simplified Version of the Theory of
Reasoned Action
Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain
outcomes
Evaluation of the outcomes
Beliefs that specific referents think I should or
should not perform the behavior
Motivation to comply with the specific referents
Subjective norm
Attitude toward the behavior
Intention
Behavior
19
Theory of Trying to Consume
An attitude theory designed to account for the
many cases where the action or outcome is not
certain but instead reflects the consumers
attempt to consume (or purchase).
20
Table 8.5 Selected Examples of Potential
Impediments That Might Impact on Trying
POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS I wonder whether
my fingernails will be longer by the time of my
wedding. I want to try to lose fifteen pounds
by next summer. Im going to try to get tickets
for a Broadway show for your birthday. Im
going to attempt to give up smoking by my
birthday. I am going to increase how often I go
to the gym from two to four times a
week. Tonight, Im not going to have dessert at
the restaurant.
POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS The first
ten people to call in will receive a free
T-shirt. Sorry, the shoes didnt come in this
shipment from Italy. There are only three
bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better
come in sometime today. I am sorry. We cannot
serve you. We are closing the restaurant because
of a problem with the oven.
21
Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
A model that proposes that a consumer forms
various feelings (affects) and judgments
(cognitions) as the result of exposure to an
advertisement, which, in turn, affect the
consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude
toward the brand.
22
Figure 8.4 A Conception of the Relationship
among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
Exposure to an Ad
Judgments about the Ad (Cognition)
Feelings from the Ad (Affect)
Beliefs about the Brand
Attitude toward the Ad
Attitude toward the Brand
23
Issues in Attitude Formation
  • How attitudes are learned
  • Sources of influence on attitude formation
  • Personality factors

24
Strategies of Attitude Change
  • Changing the Basic Motivational Function
  • Associating the Product With a Special Group,
    Event,or Cause
  • Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes
  • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
  • Changing Beliefs About Competitors Brands
  • The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

25
Functional Approach
An attitude-change theory that classifies
attitudes in terms of four functions
utilitarian, ego-defensive value-expressive, and
knowledge functions.
26
Four Basic Motivational Functions
  • The Utilitarian Function
  • The Ego-defensive Function
  • The Value-expressive Function
  • The Knowledge Function

27
Utilitarian Function
A component of the functional approach to
attitude-change theory that suggests consumers
hold certain attitudes partly because of the
brands utility.
28
Ego-Defensive Function
A component of the functional approach to
attitude-change that suggests that consumers want
to protect their self-concepts from inner
feelings of doubt.
29
Value-Expressive Function
A component of the functional approach to
attitude-change theory that suggests that
attitudes express consumers general values,
lifestyles, and outlook.
30
Knowledge Function
A component of the functional approach to
attitude-change theory that suggests that
consumers have a strong need to know and
understand the people and things with which they
come into contact.
31
Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
  • Changing the Relative Evaluation of Attributes
  • Changing Brand Beliefs
  • Adding an Attribute
  • Changing the Overall Brand Rating

32
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
A theory that suggests that a persons level of
involvement during message processing is a
critical factor in determining which route to
persuasion is likely to be effective.
33
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Involvement
HIGH
LOW
Central Route
Peripheral Route
Message Arguments Influence Attitudes
Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes
34
Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation?
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Attribution Theory

Behave (Purchase)
Form Attitude
Form Attitude
35
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a
consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a
belief or an attitude object.
36
Postpurchase Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer
has made a purchase commitment. Consumers
resolve this dissonance through a variety of
strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of
their choice.
37
Attribution Theory
A theory concerned with how people assign
casualty to events and form or alter their
attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or
other peoples behavior.
38
Issues in Attribution Theory
  • Self-perception Theory
  • Foot-In-The-Door Technique
  • Attributions Toward Others
  • Attributions Toward Things
  • How We Test Our Attributions

39
Self-Perception Theory
A theory that suggests that consumers develop
attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior.
40
Defensive Attribution
A theory that suggests consumers are likely to
accept credit for successful outcomes (internal
attribution) and to blame other persons or
products for failure (external attribution).
41
Foot-in-the-Door Technique
A theory of attitude change that suggests
individuals form attitudes that are consistent
with their own prior behavior.
42
Criteria for Causal Attributions
  • Distinctiveness
  • Consistency Over Time
  • Consistency Over Modality
  • Consensus
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