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WWI Review

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Title: WWI Review


1
WWI Review
  • History 12
  • Ms Leslie

2
Why?
  • Imperial,
  • Nationalism
  • Alliances
  • led to the Great War, war to end all wars

3
Imperialism
  • Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign
    markets after the increase in manufacturing
    caused by the Industrial Revolution.
  • competed for economic expansion in Africa.
  • several crises in North Africa with Germany
    against Britain and France.
  • In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire
    was desired by Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and
    Russia.

4
Nationalism
  • Congress of Vienna in 1815, (after Napoleonic
    wars) ignored nationalism in favor of peace.
  • Germany and Italy were left as divided states,
    but strong nationalist movements and revolutions
    led to the unification of Italy in 1861 and that
    of Germany in 1871.
  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 left France
    seething over the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to
    Germany.

5
Nationalism
  • a problem for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans,
    areas comprised of many conflicting national
    groups.
  • The Panslavism of Serbia was supported by Russia
    which conflicted with Austria-Hungary's
    Pan-Germanism.

6
North African troops
7
Algerian, Tunisian, Sengalese troops
8
Alliances
  • Were designed to keep the peace
  • Triple Entente - UK, France, Russia,
  • During WWI - Portugal, Romania, Italy, Japan,
    China, Liberia, Siam, Greece
  • Central Powers - Austria-Hungary Empire, German
    Empire, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire

9
Weird politics
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, Tsar Nicholas II of
    Russia and King George V of England were all
    first cousins
  • They were all grandchildren of Queen Victoria of
    England

10
Who fought?
  • the Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey
    aka Ottoman Empire
  • the Allies (Entente)
  • U.S., British Empire (Canada, Anzac, India),
    France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania,
    Montenegro, Portugal, Italy, and Japan.
  • About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million
    wounded.

11
What is Austria-Hungary?
12
German empire
13
German colonies
14
Europe 1914
15
British Empire
16
Ottoman Empire? Huh?
We call it Turkey now
17
1914
  • June 28 - Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and
    wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian
    nationalist, Gavrilo Princip
  • July 28 - Austria declares war on Serbia.
  • Aug 1 - Germany declares war on Russia, on
    France (Aug. 3),
  • Aug. 4 - Germany invades Belgium.
  • Aug. 4 - Britain declares war on Germany.

18
1914
  • Aug - Germans defeat Russians in Battle of
    Tannenberg on Eastern Front
  • Sept. First Battle of the Marne.
  • German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris.
  • By end of year, war on the Western Front is
    positional in the trenches.

19
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20
1915
  • Feb - German submarine blockade of Great Britain
    begins
  • April - Dardanelles CampaignBritish land in
    Turkey
  • AprilMay - Germans use gas at second Battle of
    Ypres
  • May 7 - Lusitania sunk by German submarine1,198
    lost, including 128 Americans.

21
1915
  • by Sept. 6 - On Eastern Front, German and
    Austrian great offensive conquers all of Poland
    and Lithuania Russians lose 1 million men.
  • Sept.Oct - Great Fall Offensive by Allies
    results in little change from 1914
  • Oct. 14 - Britain and France declare war on
    Bulgaria

22
1916
  • Feb - Battle of VerdunGermans and French each
    lose about 350,000 men.
  • March - Extended submarine warfare begins
  • May - British-German sea battle of Jutland
    British lose more ships, but German fleet never
    ventures forth again.
  • JuneSept - On Eastern Front, the Brusilov
    offensive demoralizes Russians, costs them 1
    million men.

23
1916
  • JulyNov - Battle of the SommeBritish lose over
    400,000 French, 200,000 Germans, about 450,000
    all with no strategic results
  • Aug. 27 - Romania declares war on
    Austria-Hungary.
  • Dec - Romanian capital, Bucharest, captured

24
1917
  • April 6 - U.S. declares war on Germany.
  • The US entered WW1 because Germany sent a note to
    Mexico (that was intercepted) saying they would
    help Mexico get some original American land back
    (meaning they would declare war on the United
    States) if they helped Germany in WW1
  • Most Americans today think its because of the
    sinking of the Lusitania in 1915.

25
1917
  • April - Submarine warfare at peak.
  • Oct.Dec - On Italian Front, Battle of Caporetto
    Italians retreat, losing 600,000 prisoners and
    deserters
  • Nov - On Western Front, Battles of Arras,
    Champagne, Ypres (third battle). First large
    British tank attack
  • Dec. 7 - U.S. declares war on Austria-Hungary.

26
1917
  • Dec. 15 Armistice between new Russian Bolshevik
    government and Germans. - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Russia dropped out because of the Revolution

27
1918
  • MarchJune - Great offensive by Germans.
  • June - Americans' first important battle role at
    Château-Thierryas they and French stop German
    advance.
  • JulyAug - Second Battle of the Marne
  • Sept.Oct - start of Allied offensive at Amiens,
    St. Mihiel, etc. Battles of the Argonne and Ypres
    panic German leadership

28
1918
  • Sept - British offensive in Palestine.
  • Oct. 4 Germans ask for armistice. British
    armistice with Turkey.
  • Nov - German Kaiser abdicates. Hostilities cease
    on Western Front (Nov. 11).

29
Losses
  • France bore the brunt of the war
  • Most of it was on French land
  • Lost 2 million, another 4 million wounded (out of
    39 million)
  • France wants REVENGE

30
animals
  • 800,000 horses killed
  • 40,000 dogs killed
  • Winnie the Pooh
  • Rin Tin Tin - famous dog that starred in 40
    movies served in the war
  • Lots of courier pigeons used

31
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32
Other things to note
  • UK - 250,000 amputees
  • Spanish flu (h1n1) kills 50 million world wide
  • USA only involved for 8 months
  • Halifax explosion
  • Women given the vote

33
WWI firsts
  • First war to be fought on 3 continents.
  • First industrialized conflict.
  • First use of chlorine mustard gas.
  • First use of the flame thrower.
  • First tank battle.
  • First use of mass airplanes.

34
  • First use of x-ray in the military.
  • First use of a blood bank.
  • First use of guide dogs by blinded soldiers.
  • First use of trillion in estimating war costs.
  • First commissioning of war art for propaganda.
  • First U.S. president to visit a European country
    while in office was Woodrow Wilson on 12/04/18
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