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Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration

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Title: Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration


1
Lincoln drove home two points during his
inauguration
  1. He would do whatever needed to preserve the Union
  2. He had no intent to interfere, directly or
    indirectly, with the institution of slavery

2
The Civil War was underway!
  • The North vs. The South
  • The Union vs. The Confederacy
  • The Blue vs. the Gray

3
April 12, 1861 Charleston, South Carolina
  • Lincoln planned to maintain
  • control over the South by
  • holding federal fortifications
  • in the secession states
  • Jefferson Davis, elected
  • Confederate President,
  • saw this as a weakness
  • and refused to allow it.

4
  • Lincoln sends a supply ship
  • to fortify Fort Sumter,
  • a Union garrison.
  • For two days, Confederate troops bombarded the
    fortress ,
  • forcing the federal forces to surrender.

5
An ill-prepared North readied for war.
  • Northern forces
  • -only 16,000 men
  • -No general staff
  • -only 42 ships ready
  • Lincoln calls up 75,000 militia to active service
    for 90 days.
  • In the South
  • -500,000 men enlisted for service
  • -Had prepared leaders who
  • graduated from West Point
  • But,
  • Did not have enough guns
  • or uniforms

6
July,1861 The Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
  • First major battle of war
  • 30,000 Union v 22,000 Confed.
  • General Thomas J. Jackson
  • Uses 9000 inexperienced Confed.
  • Troops to force Union troops
  • to retreat to Washington
  • (gets nickname Stonewall)
  • Things seem to be going
  • the Souths way..

7
  • Battles With Dual Names
  • Date of Battle Confederate
    Name Federal Name 
  • July 21, 1861  First
    Manassas  Bull Run 
  • Aug. 10, 1861  Oak
    Hills  Wilson's Creek 
  • Oct. 21, 1861  
    Leesburg  Ball's Bluff 
  • Jan. 19, 1862  Mill Springs 
    Logan's Cross Roads 
  • Mar. 7-8, 1862  Elkhorn Tavern Pea
    Ridge 
  • Apr. 6-7, 1862 
    Shiloh  Pittsburg Landing 
  • June 27, 1862 Gaines's Mill 
    Chickahominy 
  • Aug. 29-30,1862 Second Manassas   Second
    Bull Run 
  • Sept. 1, 1862  Ox Hill
    Chantilly 
  • Sept. 14, 1862  Boonsboro  South
    Mountain 
  • Sept. 17, 1862  Sharpsburg 
    Antietam 
  • Oct. 8, 1862  Perryville 
    Chaplin Hills 
  • Dec. 31, 1862- Jan 2, 1863  Murfreesboro 
    Stones River 
  • Apr. 8, 1864  Mansfield Sabine
    Cross Roads 
  • Sept. 19, 1864  Winchester 
    Opequon Creek

8
1862
  • Union General Ulysses S. Grant
  • The Battle of Shiloh
  • Union Victory
  • 13,000 Union and 11,000 Confederate dead
  • Significance
  • S Troops began to desert service
  • Davis enacts the first conscription law in US
    history (a draft)
  • Rich Southerners hired substitutes to serve in
    their place
  • (5K to 6K)
  • Or sent their slaves

9
  • Davis also
  • -imposed martial law
  • (military in control)
  • -collected taxes from
  • farm and plantation owners
  • -Forced farmers to switch
  • from cash crops to food crops
  • -Used slaves for labor (impressment)
  • -Took control of all Southern railroads

10
August 1862
  • The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
  • Confederate General Robert E. Lee
  • Vs.
  • Union General George B. McClellan
  • Lees plans are discovered (cigars)
  • McClellan is slow to react
  • September 17 Sharpsburg, MD
  • 14 hours of intense fighting
  • over a small bridge

Robert E. Lee
George B McClellan
11
  • 4,800 dead
  • 18,500 wounded
  • 3,500 would die from injuries
  • Darkness mercifully ended the
  • single bloodiest day in American History

12
The Ironclads
  • New ship technology
  • Wooden ships covered with steel plates one foot
    thick
  • South The Virginia (Merrimack)
  • North The Monitor
  • Sunday March 9, 1862
  • After 6 hours and no damage
  • the battle was over
  • The era of the wooden ship died!

13
CSS Virginia
USS Merrimack
comes from the
USS Monitor
Damage for the battle
14
The H.L. Hunley
  • Thomas Park Thomas Lyons
  • The first attack submarine
  • Used a spar torpedo that was stuck on the hull of
    the enemy ship

15
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16
1863
  • McClellan is replaced with General Hooker (end of
    1862)
  • - he ignored a direct presidential order at
    Battle of Richmond
  • January 1, 1863
  • President Lincoln issues the
    Emancipation Proclamation
  • It promised to free the slaves of those secession
    states who did not return to the Union!

17
But only if the North wins!
  • By the Emancipation Proclamation 3,063,392 slaves
    were set free, as follows
  • Arkansas 111,104 Alabama 435,132 Florida 61,753
  • Georgia 462,232 Mississippi 436,696 North
    Carolina 275,081
  • South Carolina 402,541 Texas 180,682 Virginia
    (part) 450,437
  • Louisiana (part) 247,734

18
The Battle of Gettysburg
  • July 1st, 2nd 3rd, 1863
  • 75,000 Confed. meet 97,000 Union
  • Confederates use their resources to attempt to
    break the Union line.
  • July 3 Picketts Charge
  • 15,000 Confed. troops marches across 1000 open
    yards.
  • 10,000 Confed. soldiers would
    be wounded or killed.

19
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20
  • Union losses
  • 3,155 dead 23,049 wounded
  • Confederate losses
  • 4,965 dead 17,287 wounded
  • It is the deadliest engagement of the Civil War!
  • The North could resupply
  • Marks the beginning of the end for the South

21
November 19, 1863
  • President Lincoln is invited to speak at the
    dedication ceremony for Gettysburg National
    Cemetery
  • The Gettysburg Address
  • -267 words long
  • Ignites the fighting spirit
  • of the North
  • Lincoln is determined to win!

22
Page 1
Page 2
23
1864 The Beginning of the End
  • - Battle of the Wilderness
  • Battle of Spotsylvania

Shermans March to the Sea - Gen. William
Tecumseh Sherman
Marches from the Mississippi River to
Atlanta, Georgia destroying everything in his
path
Much southern resistance was destroyed!
24
1865 Only Virginia and the Carolinas remained
  • Sherman and Grant agree to meet in
    Richmond
  • Lee is forced to retreat across the Appomattox
    River
  • -after losing 7,000 more men, Lee makes a
    fateful decision
  • April 9, 1865
  • General Robert E. Lee surrendered to
  • General Ulysses S. Grant
  • at Appomattox Courthouse
  • (McLean House)
  • The War is Over!

25
The Cost of War!
  • 620,000 soldiers lost their lives
  • -360,000 Union
  • -260,000 Confederate
  • (nearly equals the 680,000 lost in ALL other was
    US has been involved with)
  • A stronger National government
  • -took over jobs managed by states
  • -currency, militias, taxes and more
  • A new sense of Nation / Union
  • and Lincoln is reelected

26
April 14, 1865
  • President Lincoln decides to celebrate by taking
    a play in at Fords Theater

Little did he know the third act would be so
painful!
27
John Wilkes Booth
  • Original plot to kidnap Lincoln and force N. to
    surrender
  • After Appomattox, it becomes a plot to kill the
    President and other cabinet members
  • (VP Sec of State)
  • 8 other conspirators
  • included a woman
  • (Mary E. Surratt)

28
  • Booth shoots Lincoln in the head
  • He leaps to the stage (breaking a leg)
  • and escapes into the night
  • Co-conspirator fails to kill
  • William Seward Sec of State
  • (Lewis Paine)
  • Lincoln is carried across the
  • street and lies motionless until
  • 722 a.m. the next morning
  • He dies of his wounds

29
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30
  • Booth would flee and later be shot in the neck by
    Sgt. Boston Corbett
  • Providence directed me

31
  • The remaining conspirators were hung for their
    roles
  • Mary E. Surratt became the first woman executed
    by the Federal Government

32
  • On April 15, 1865
  • Andrew Johnson was sworn in as the President of
    the United States
  • Lincoln never saw his lasting affect on the
    nation.
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