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Emergence of Civilization

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Emergence of Civilization Unit 1 Civilization Emergence of Civilization CIVITAS - Latin word meaning 'cities Emerges at the end of the Neolithic era First ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emergence of Civilization


1
Emergence of Civilization
  • Unit 1
  • Civilization

2
(No Transcript)
3
Emergence of Civilization
  • CIVITAS - Latin word meaning 'cities
  • Emerges at the end of the Neolithic era
  • First Civilizations develops in four different
    areas independently of each other.

4
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 1- Surplus of Food
  • 2- Complex Institutions (government)
  • More complex government and religions
  • High level of cooperation for the benefit of the
    group
  • 3- Division of Labor - Specialized workers
  • Specialized skills occupations
  • Creates a class of skilled worked called Artisans
  • Merchants and Traders
  • Due to the surplus of food, not everybody had to
    be farmers. Other things are needed/wanted in
    order to survive, so they specialized in other
    trades, then some may have bartered food with
    their work/skills.

5
5 Characteristics of Civilization
  • 4- Writing - Record Keeping
  • Priests were the first to start using marks or
    drawings which evolved into writing
  • Needed to keep track of when to do important
    ceremonies and rituals to keep the gods happy
  • Scribes - Those who mastered the writing and
    reading of the symbols Keep Secretive
  • Government
  • Births, deaths, taxes
  • Ownership, marriages, business contracts, etc..
  • Became a way to pass down traditions, learning,
    wisdom, information, ideas and religious beliefs

6
Characteristics of Civilization
  • 5- Calendar
  • Needed to know when river would flood
  • Time from flood to flood was a year
  • Time from full moon to next full moon was a month
  • Not completely accurate about 11 days off

7
GROWTH OF CITIES
  • 4 Areas of the world develop independently of
    each other
  • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Valley - Mesopotamia
  • Nile River Egypt
  • Indus River Valley India
  • Yellow River Valley - China
  • All Develop around Rivers
  • Fertile soil
  • Rivers consistently flood every year
  • Bring moisture to the land
  • Can be used for Transportation and food
  • Fish and animals

8
Religion
  • POLYTHEISTIC - Belief in many Gods and Goddesses
    that control the forces of nature
  • Believed in spirits
  • Believed that the Gods controlled forces of
    nature
  • Gave sacrifices to win the gods favor and get
    peace, good harvests, rainfall, etc.
  • Wanted to keep the Gods happy
  • Priests (priest-kings) gained power because they
    carried out the rituals to keep the gods happy
  • Powerful positions in the governments

9
Religion
  • THEOCRACY - Government controlled by a church or
    religion
  • Military leaders worked in conjunction with
    priests to keep the gods happy and provided a
    defense against enemies
  • Collected taxes - earliest system of taxation
  • Labor for construction projects
  • Part of harvest
  • Used to pay for government and building projects

10
Economy and Society
  • Technology was important
  • made work easier, faster and more efficient
  • Bronze Age - Vessels, tool, weapons They last
    longer
  • Bronze is mixture of copper and tin
  • Farming improved
  • Develop use of irrigation through ditches and
    canals
  • Fewer farms needed
  • Excess food used for trading with merchants for
    goods
  • Barter Economy - Trading goods or services for
    something you need
  • Creates a demand for more specialized skills and
    goods
  • Still used to some extent today

11
Important Point to Note
  • Although civilization developed in different
    areas and at different times there was still
    limited contact between them
  • Trading
  • Migration
  • Wars
  • Cultural Diffusion Spread of ideas, skills, and
    a diversity of culture.

12
Review Questions (24 Points)
  1. Where did the first 4 civilizations begin?
  2. Why was there a need for specialized workers in a
    civilization?
  3. What are the 5 characteristics of a civilization?
  4. Why did the 4 civilizations all develop around
    rivers?
  5. How was time of one year determined by early
    calendars?
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