PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION


1
PART ITHE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION
2
PART I
  • Paleolithic Age
  • Humans had spread around globe
  • Humans were hunter-gatherers
  • Life style could not support large numbers
  • Man makes tools of stone, bone
  • Began around 9,000 BCE
  • Rise of agriculture
  • Culture becomes increasingly complex

3
RISE OF NEOLITHIC
  • Areas where Neolithic cultures arose
  • Harsh environments
  • Water shortages
  • Few reliable sources of foodstuffs
  • Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
  • Development, spread of agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Improvement of technology

4
ASPECTS OF NEOLITHIC AGE
  • Effects of Neolithic Age
  • Sedentary culture develops
  • Surplus of food leads to increased populations
  • Rise of differentiated occupations
  • Complex cultures
  • Gender relations change
  • Humans begin to change environment
  • Communicable diseases become common

5
PALEOLITHIC vs. NEOLITHIC
  • Many resist sedentarism
  • Pastoralists
  • Hunter-Gatherers survive until 20th century
  • Development uneven across regions
  • Change often slow
  • Indigenous development vs. diffusion

6
CIVILIZATIONS 1ST PHASE
  • Five major centers beginning around 4,500 BCE
  • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)
  • Nile River Valley
  • Indus River Valley
  • Northern China (Huang He)
  • Central America
  • Civilizations arose in few areas, spread out
  • Often arose around control of water
  • Called hydraulic (Hydro water) civilizations
  • Irrigation, flood control at center of power,
    changes
  • Ancient period lasts generally to 1000 BCE

7
THE CULTURE OF CIVILIZATION
  • Permanent Institutions
  • Religious Theocracies, priesthoods, polytheism
  • Political Monarchy, aristocracy, militaries
  • Social Rise of classes
  • Gender Patriarchy
  • Trade and Commerce
  • Systems of Record Keeping
  • Intellectual Traditions
  • Arts, Architecture
  • Literatures

8
WIDER CONTACTS
  • Each civilization had particular patterns
  • Effects of Geography
  • Either facilitated, hindered communication
  • Strengthened, weakened local culture
  • Contacts
  • War, Trade, Diseases
  • Nomads
  • Migration

9
PROBLEMS OF WORLD HISTORY
  • Role of technology, effects on environment
  • Comparisons between civilizations
  • Importance of early heritages
  • How much did ancient influence later cultures
  • How much is later, indigenous development
  • When did ancient period end?
  • Can we compare ancient, modern eras?
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PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

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Title: PART I: THE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION


1
PART ITHE ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION
2
PART I
  • Paleolithic Age
  • Humans had spread around globe
  • Humans were hunter-gatherers
  • Life style could not support large numbers
  • Man makes tools of stone, bone
  • Began around 9,000 BCE
  • Rise of agriculture
  • Culture becomes increasingly complex

3
RISE OF NEOLITHIC
  • Areas where Neolithic cultures arose
  • Harsh environments
  • Water shortages
  • Few reliable sources of foodstuffs
  • Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
  • Development, spread of agriculture
  • Domestication of animals
  • Improvement of technology

4
ASPECTS OF NEOLITHIC AGE
  • Effects of Neolithic Age
  • Sedentary culture develops
  • Surplus of food leads to increased populations
  • Rise of differentiated occupations
  • Complex cultures
  • Gender relations change
  • Humans begin to change environment
  • Communicable diseases become common

5
PALEOLITHIC vs. NEOLITHIC
  • Many resist sedentarism
  • Pastoralists
  • Hunter-Gatherers survive until 20th century
  • Development uneven across regions
  • Change often slow
  • Indigenous development vs. diffusion

6
CIVILIZATIONS 1ST PHASE
  • Five major centers beginning around 4,500 BCE
  • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)
  • Nile River Valley
  • Indus River Valley
  • Northern China (Huang He)
  • Central America
  • Civilizations arose in few areas, spread out
  • Often arose around control of water
  • Called hydraulic (Hydro water) civilizations
  • Irrigation, flood control at center of power,
    changes
  • Ancient period lasts generally to 1000 BCE

7
THE CULTURE OF CIVILIZATION
  • Permanent Institutions
  • Religious Theocracies, priesthoods, polytheism
  • Political Monarchy, aristocracy, militaries
  • Social Rise of classes
  • Gender Patriarchy
  • Trade and Commerce
  • Systems of Record Keeping
  • Intellectual Traditions
  • Arts, Architecture
  • Literatures

8
WIDER CONTACTS
  • Each civilization had particular patterns
  • Effects of Geography
  • Either facilitated, hindered communication
  • Strengthened, weakened local culture
  • Contacts
  • War, Trade, Diseases
  • Nomads
  • Migration

9
PROBLEMS OF WORLD HISTORY
  • Role of technology, effects on environment
  • Comparisons between civilizations
  • Importance of early heritages
  • How much did ancient influence later cultures
  • How much is later, indigenous development
  • When did ancient period end?
  • Can we compare ancient, modern eras?
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