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U.S. History I

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U.S. History I Chapter 9 An Emerging World Power – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History I


1
U.S. History I
  • Chapter 9
  • An Emerging World Power

2
U.S. History I
  • Chapter 9 Section 1
  • The Roots of Imperialism

3
  • The Causes of Imperialism
  • Imperialists Seek Economic Benefits
  • Imperialism the economic and political
    domination by a strong country over a weaker one
  • Extractive Economies Country whos raw materials
    are taken by imperial country-most benefit is to
    home country
  • Protectorate a country which is technically
    independent but is under the control of another
  • Imperialists Stress Military Strength
  • Alfred T. Mahan Wrote Influence of Sea Power
    Upon History
  • Imperialists Believe in National Superiority
  • Anglo-Saxonism the argument that English
    speaking nations were superior to others
  • Josiah Strong Minister who sent missions to
    civilize world
  • Social-Darwinism Life is a competition and only
    fittest survive
  • Frederick Jackson Turner Open west was safety
    valve for tension in U.S. Now that west was
    settled, Americans needed new valve

4
  • U.S. Power Grows in the Pacific
  • Perry Opens Japan
  • Matthew C. Perry (1853) ordered by President
    Pierce to force trade between the US and Japan
  • Succeeds when Japanese sees size of fleet as a
    threat
  • Seward Purchases Alaska (1867) from Russia for
    7.2 Million
  • U.S. Influence Grows in Latin America
  • James G. Blaine
  • Pan-Americanism US and Latin America working
    together
  • 1889 Pan-American conference
  • Customs union
  • Reduce tariffs
  • Latin countries refused to do these but agreed to
    create the Commercial Bureau of American
    Republics (later called the Organization of
    American States OAS)

5
  • Commodore Perry
  • Negotiating With Japan
  • Maps Latin America (Top)
  • Alaska, Japan, and Hawaii

6
The United States Acquires Hawaii
  • Why Hawaii?
  • Sugarcane
  • Pineapple
  • Hawaii exempt from sugar tariffs
  • Tensions mount between planters and Hawaiians
    over new constitution
  • McKinley Tariff makes Hawaiian sugar more
    expensive than American sugar
  • Hawaiis economy suffers
  • Queen Liliuokalani takes throne 1891
  • Tries to change constitution in 1892
  • Planters back movement to overthrow Queen
  • Aided by the Marines, Planters force Queen
    Liliuokalani to abdicate the throne (1883)
  • President Cleveland tries to restore Queen to
    throne
  • Senate refuses to ratify treaty
  • 1898 US annexes Hawaii (After Spanish-American
    War Began)

7
Sanford Dole and Queen Lili (Map) Hawaii,
Guam, Samoa
8
Section 2 The Spanish-American War
  • Causes of the War
  • The Cuban Rebellion Begins
  • 1895 Cuban rebels declare independence
  • José Martí, Cuban exile who tried to gain support
    while living in NYC (Bottom Left)
  • The Yellow Press Inflames Opinion
  • William Randolph Hearst, New York Journal (Left)
  • Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador
  • One of his letters published in New York Journal
    enrages the nation
  • Jingoism Aggressive Nationalism
  • Joseph Pulitzer, The World
  • Competition to increase circulation of their
    newspapers
  • Yellow Journalism exaggerated, sensationalist,
    often false stories made up to sell more papers
  • Led to many Americans supporting Cuba

9
The Maine Blows Up!
  • Maine explosion 1898
  • 266 dead,
  • Many blamed Spain
  • (USS Maine Below, Hearst Article Blaming Spain
    Top Right, and Spanish Misrule Cartoon)

10
  • American Troops Battle the Spanish
  • The United States Takes the Philippines
  • George Dewey leads squadron into Manila Bay
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino revolutionary leader
    starts a guerrilla war against Spain after being
    contacted by President McKinley
  • Thinks American troops are there to assist him
  • Leads to hostilities been Filipinos and Americans
  • American Forces Battle in Cuba
  • Rough Riders land in Cuba led by Leonard Wood
    and second in command Theodore Roosevelt
  • Kettle Hill, Rough Riders accompanied by all
    African American regiment of the 9th and 10th
    calvary (many of which were volunteers)
  • Spanish surrender and on August 12, 1898 Spain
    and the U.S. agree to a cease-fire

11
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
  • Emilio Aguinaldo

12
Rough Riders and Buffalo Soldiers
13
  • Effects of the War
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Cuba given freedom
  • U.S. takes control of Guam and Puerto Rico
  • U.S. trying to determine what to do with the
    Philippines
  • The Debate Over Annexation
  • Imperialists wanted to annex the Philippines
  • Teach the uncivilized people how to live properly
    (McKinley)
  • Free the oppressed
  • Anti-Imperialists
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Imperialism costs would outweigh the economic
    gains
  • Jane Addams
  • Annexation would be against American principles
  • Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain-Left)
  • Annexation would be against American principles
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Worried about competition for jobs and drive down
    wages

14
U.S. History I
  • Chapter 9 Section 3
  • The U.S. and East Asia
  • 3.1, 9.3, 9.4

15
  • Filipinos Rebel Against American Rule
  • Emilio Aguinaldo calls for troops to attack
    Americans Insurrection rebellion
  • Guerilla Warfare non-traditional small arms
    combat Aguinaldo captured 1901
  • 5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos die
  • General Arthur MacArthur (Douglas MacArthurs
    father)
  • Sets up re-concentration camps to separate
    guerilla warriors from civilians
  • Thousands die from starvation and disease

16
Reforms lead to promise of Self-ruleeventually
  • William Howard Taft, 1st US civilian governor
  • tried to reform education, transportation and
    healthcare
  • Building railroads, bridges, telephone lines to
    strengthen the economy
  • Public schools
  • 1946 Philippines gain independence from the U.S.

17
The U.S. Pursues Interests in China
  • Theodore Roosevelts Rise to Power
  • President McKinley asked Teddy to run as his Vice
    President in 1900
  • The Election of 1900
  • McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan
  • Four More Years of the Full Dinner Pail
  • 9/6/1901 Leon Czogosz, shoots McKinley
  • Teddy (age 42) takes office
  • Roosevelt Becomes President
  • Believed the US had a duty to shape the less
    civilized corners of the world
  • Wanted the US to be a world power

18
  • America Declares Equal Trade in China
  • Exports to China increased 4x
  • The Open Door Policy John Hay
  • Sphere of Influence a section of a country
    where one foreign nation enjoys special rights
    and powers
  • Open Door Policy a policy that allows each
    foreign nation in China to trade freely in the
    other nations spheres of influence
  • The Boxer Rebellion
  • Chinese movement to rid themselves of foreign
    control
  • Group members attacked foreign embassies in
    Beijing
  • U.S. retains access to Chinese exports due to
    Secretary of State John Hays urging of foreign
    powers to accept compensation for damages rather
    than attack China and break it into colonies

19
  • Tensions Rise Between America and Japan
  • Negotiating peace between Japan and Russia, aided
    by outcome of Boxer Rebellion Russo-Japanese War
  • Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize 1906
  • Japan and US relations wither
  • Anti-Asian Protests in U.S. (Gentlemans
    Agreement)
  • Great White Fleet voyage
  • Increased tensions rather than elevating them

20
The Great White Fleet
21
  • U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
  • Foraker Act
  • Puerto Rico becomes an unincorporated territory
  • Puerto Ricans not US citizens
  • Puerto Ricans did not have constitutional rights
  • Congress could pass any laws they wanted in
    regards to Puerto Rico
  • Slowly gain self governance
  • 1917 Puerto Ricans become US citizens
  • 1947 hold elections for governor
  • Debate on statehood, commonwealth, or
    independence still a heated topic today

22
  • U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba
  • McKinley makes promises
  • Eventual independence for Cuba
  • Own constitution
  • McKinley puts stipulations
  • Platt Amendment
  • Stipulations
  • Cuba cannot make treaties with other countries
    which would weaken its independence
  • Cuba must allow the US to buy or lease naval
    stations in Cuba
  • Cubas debts had to be kept low to stop possible
    foreign collectors from landing on the island
  • US had the right to intervene to protect Cubas
    independence and to keep order
  • Cubans rejected it at first, later change their
    minds
  • Repealed in 1934

23
Roosevelt Pursues Big Stick Diplomacy
  • A Growing Presence in the Caribbean
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick Policy
  • The Panama Canal
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
  • Revolt in Panama
  • Rid of Columbian influence
  • Panama becomes independent
  • Signs treaty with US to build canal

24
  • The Roosevelt Corollary To Monroe Doctrine
  • The U.S. should and would intervene in Latin
    American affairs when needed to maintain economic
    and political stability---------------------------
    -----------?
  • 1st applied in the Dominican Republic
  • Latin American countries resent involvement
  • Dollar Diplomacy William Howard Taft
  • Tafts policy, which follows T. Roosevelts
  • Substituted dollars for bullets
  • Nicaragua got both bullets and money
  • Moral diplomacy Woodrow Wilson
  • U.S. Should promote human rights and opportunity
  • never again seek one additional foot of
    territory by conquest
  • Francisco Poncho Villa Pursued by U.S. troops
    for an attack on Americans that left 18 dead (SEE
    Page 274)
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