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Just%20Growth:%20%20Inclusion%20and%20Prosperity%20in%20America

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Just Growth: Inclusion and Prosperity in America s Metropolitan Regions By Chris Benner, Associate Professor ... Employment/industrial composition (9) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Just%20Growth:%20%20Inclusion%20and%20Prosperity%20in%20America


1
Just Growth Inclusion and Prosperity in
Americas Metropolitan Regions
  • By Chris Benner, Associate Professor
  • UC Davis
  • July 26, 2012

Thanks to Ford Foundation, Manuel Pastor and
entire PERE/USC staff, Rosa Ramirez and Mateusz
Filipski
2
Outline
  • Background links between social equity and
    economic growth in regions
  • Just Growth project studying why and how equity
    is linked with growth at regional scale
  • Conclusions Implications for planning

3
Equity and efficiency trade-offs?
  • Conventional wisdom in economics
  • Need for large-scale investment
  • Shift from low to high productivity
  • Incentives and motivation
  • New equity and growth synergies?
  • Keynesian economics
  • Countries in the Global south
  • Regions in the U.S.

4
Equity Matters at Regional Scale
  • City-Suburb income gaps associated with
    stagnation in regional income and jobs (Savitch
    et al. 1993)
  • Per capita income growth faster where poverty
    gaps and segregation lower (Pastor et al. 2000)
  • Racial inclusion and equality strongest predictor
    of four different measures of regional growth
    (Austrian et al. 2007)
  • Relationship between equity and growth is
    stronger in weak-market regions than fast
    growth regions (Pastor and Benner 2008)
  • Income inequality associated with lower savings
    rates (linked with financial and social distress,
    including bankruptcies, high commute times,
    divorce) (Frank et al. 2010)

5
Fund for our Economic Future
136 Metro areas, 4 growth measures, 9 broad
indicators with 38 different variables
Source Fund for our Economic Future, North East
Ohio http//www.futurefundneo.org/en//media/Files
/Research/200720Dashboard20of20Economic20Indic
ators.ashx
6
Just Growth key questions
  • Why is equity linked with growth?
  • How are just growth regions able to link growth
    with equity?
  • Steps in the analysis
  • Identify just growth regions
  • Quantitative analysis of factors predicting just
    growth
  • In-depth case studies

7
Identifying just growth regions
Quadrant analysis total of 72 national, and 72
in each of four census divisions, with little
consistency
8
Identifying Just Growth regions
  • Key measures
  • Growth change in earnings and employment
  • Equity change in percent below poverty and 80/20
    household income ratio
  • Total of 12 different matrices (80s, 90s, and
    full 20-years)
  • Typology of regions6 categories
  • Consistently good and bad (both 80s and 90s)
  • 20-year good and bad (over full 20-year period)
  • Turnaround and reverse (opposite patterns for 80s
    90s)
  • Created growth and equity indices
  • 2 indicators, 3 time periods, standardized by
    census region
  • Divided each index into terciles

9
Index of growth and equity 1980-2000
10
Index of growth and equity 1980-2000
11
Testing for characteristics associated with Just
Growth
  • Multiple variables
  • Employment/industrial composition (9)
  • Geographic and distributional dimensions (8)
  • Workforce demographics and housing (7)
  • Interest in regional growth and/or justice (2)
  • Multiple models
  • Simple correlations
  • Multivariate regressions
  • Logit models

12
Just Growth Factors1
  • Diversified economy
  • State capital
  • Nashville, Columbus, Denver, Sacramento
  • Public sector employment
  • Jacksonville, Sacramento
  • Construction
  • Denverlink with public investment
  • Manufacturing negatively correlated
  • Regional government/governance
  • Jacksonville, Nashville City/County Mergers
  • Kansas City MARC

13

14

15
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16

17
Just Growth Factors2
  • Small portions of poorly educated population
  • Better predictor of just growth than high
    portions of highly educated population
  • Minority Middle Class
  • Nashville

18
Building diverse epistemic communities
  • Like-minded networks of professionals whose
    authoritative claim to consensual knowledge
    provides them with unique source of power in
    decision-making processes. Processes of
    interaction (interpretation, knowledge
    generation, action) often institutionalized when
    theres a need for repeated interactions over
    extended periods of time
  • In short What you know and who you know it with
  • Exemplary diverse examples
  • Jurisdictional ties
  • Leadership Nashville
  • Jacksonville Community Council Inc.

19
  • Founded in 1976, mostly volunteer, 1 staff
  • Annual cohort chosen from applicants and
    nominations to represent full diversity of the
    region
  • 200 to participate, and scholarships available
  • Monthly day-long discussions focused on issues in
    Nashville
  • Government Media
  • Education
  • Business Labor
  • Diversity
  • Quality of Life
  • Criminal Justice
  • Arts entertainment
  • More than 200 alumni involved in hosting,
    planning, sponsoring, participating in events
  • No positions! Safe, sustained, deliberative
    dialogue

20
  • Founded in 1975
  • Multi-faceted community/participatory
    think-tank
  • One of the earliest annual indicator projects
  • Annual studies on particular topics
  • Volunteer citizen task force, facilitated by
    staff
  • Broad consultative process
  • Consensus based recommendations for action
  • Broadly shared priorities and sense of common
    destiny

21
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22
Conclusions
  • Clear correlations between equity and growth
    within regions
  • Steady, unspectacular, collaborative regions
    producing long-term success
  • No silver bullet, but also diversity of
    opportunitieskey is ties that help shape common
    destiny

23
Thank you!
  • ccbenner_at_ucdavis.edu
  • http//Justgrowth.org
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