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Title: Elements%20of%20Music%20(continued)


1
Elements of Music (continued)
  • Texture

2
Musical Texture
  • Number of layers of sound that are heard at once,
    including
  • What kind of layers they are, and
  • How they are related to each other

3
Musical Texture is all about LAYERS
Think FOOD
Lemon poundcake Is a single layer
Black Forest Cake Is many layers
4
Musical Texture is all about LAYERS
Think FOOD
Lemon poundcake Is MONO-textured
Black Forest Cake Is POLY-textured
5
Musical Texture is all about LAYERS
MONOPHONY is musical texture with only one layer
of melody
POLYPHONY is musical texture with more than one
layer of melody
6
Musical Textures
  • MONOPHONY (n.), MONOPHONIC (adj.) one sounding
  • Single melodic line without accompaniment
  • Example
  • ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (Gregorian
    Chant)
  • POLYPHONY (n.), POLYPHONIC (adj.) many sounding
  • Performance of two or more melodic lines of
    relatively equal interest at the same time
  • Example
  • J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata 140 Wachet
    auf

7
Counterpoint (n.),Contrapuntal (adj.)
  • The technique of combining two or more melodic
    lines into a meaningful whole
  • Often used interchangeably with POLYPHONY
  • Term comes from Latin - punctum contra punctum
    (point against point, note against note)

8
ANONYMOUS - Alleluia Vidimus Stellam (Gregorian
Chant)
Solo voice
Choir
9
J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata 140 Wachet
auf
Violins
Tenors
Cellos/Harpsichord
10
POLYPHONY has different types
  • NON-IMITATIVE(adj.)
  • Example J.S.BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata 140
    Wachet auf
  • When the layers of melody are different from one
    another
  • IMITATION (n.), IMITATIVE (adj.)
  • Example JOSQUIN DESPREZ - Ave Maria
  • When the layers of melody are the same or very
    similar and the different layers start at
    different times

11
J.S. BACH - Movement 4 from Cantata 140 Wachet
auf
Violins
Tenors
Cellos/Harpsichord
NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY
12
JOSQUIN DESPREZ - Ave Maria
Sopranos
Altos
Tenors
Basses
IMITATIVE POLYPHONY
13
Frere Jacques (Row, row, row your boat)
Example of ROUND/CANON
Voice 1
1 2 321 1 2 321 3 4 5 3 4 5 565431
1 2 321 1 2 321 3 4 5
Voice 2
1 2 321
Voice 3
565431 1 5 1 1 5 1
3 4 5 565431 565431 1 5 1 1 5 1
1 2 321 3 4 5 3 4 5 565431 565431
14
Round (Canon)
  • A strict type of IMITATIVE POLYPHONY in which a
    song in which several people sing the same melody
    but each starts at a different time
  • Examples
  • Frere Jacques (Are you sleeping, Brother John?)
  • Row, row, row your boat

15
There is one special type of NON-IMITATIVE
POLYPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY- term describing music in which one
    main melody is accompanied by chords
  • HYMN-LIKE
  • The main melody is usually the highest in pitch
  • The melodic layers move in similar rhythms
  • The melodies sound together to produce chords
  • Example J.S. BACH - Movement 7 from Cantata 140
  • MELODY ACCOMPANIMENT
  • The main melody stands out by itself
  • The back-up part is made up of chords
  • Example FREDERIC CHOPIN - Nocturne in Eb Major

16
Pedal Point (Organ Point)
  • A single tone, usually in the bass, which is held
    while the other voices produce a series of
    changing harmonies against it othen found in
    fugues
  • Example G.F. Handel Hallelujah Chorus from
    Messiah
  • Similar to DRONE - A long, sustained tone or
    tones accompanying a melody
  • Example Hildegard of Bingen - O Successores
    (Chant)

17
G.F. HANDEL - Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah
  • Orchestral Intro
  • Hallelujah
  • for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth
  • Hallelujah
  • for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth
  • Hallelujah
  • for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth/Hallelujah
  • POLYPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY
  • MONOPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY
  • MONOPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY
  • POLYPHONY

18
G.F. HANDEL - Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah
  • The kingdom of this world is become the Kingdom
    of our Lord and of his Christ
  • And He shall reign for ever and ever
  • King of Kings, and Lord or Lords, for ever and
    ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!
  • HOMOPHONY
  • (Bass) MONOPHONY, then
  • IMITATIVE POLYPHONY
  • PEDAL POINT

19
G.F. HANDEL - Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah
  • And He shall reign for ever and ever
  • King of Kings, and Lord or Lords, for ever and
    ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!
  • And He shall reign for ever and ever
  • King of Kings, and Lord or Lords,
  • POLYPHONY
  • PEDAL POINT
  • POLYPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY

20
G.F. HANDEL - Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah
  • for ever and ever, Hallelujah, Hallelujah!
  • (pause)
  • Hallelujah!
  • POLYPHONY
  • HOMOPHONY
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