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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Psychology, Ninth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Worth Publishers
  • (2010)

2
Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Youre one of a kind
Evolve
had to be there.
Designer Genes
Ladies and Gentlemen
3
Designer Genes
500
400
300
200
100
4
Evolve
500
400
300
200
100
5
Youre one of a kind.
500
400
300
200
100
6
had to be there
500
400
300
200
100
7
Ladies and Gentlemen
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. Identical twins develop from
  • A) a single egg and two sperms.
  • B) two eggs and a single sperm.
  • C) a single egg and a single sperm.
  • D) two eggs and two sperms.

9
2. A spiraling, complex molecule containing
genes is called
  • A) DNA.
  • B) a chromosome.
  • C) a genome.
  • D) a gene complex.

10
3. In adoption studies, scientists have found
  • A) adopted children have personalities closer to
    the parents who raised them.
  • B) adopted children have personalities closer to
    the other children they were raised with.
  • C) adopted children have personalities shaped
    predominantly from their environments.
  • D) adopted children have personalities closer
    to their biological parents.

11
4. Mitch was extremely emotionally inhibited and
fearful as a 2 year-old, and at age 6 continued
to be very shy. This illustrates the importance
of
  • A) parenting styles.
  • B) temperament.
  • C) chromosomal matching.
  • D) early trauma on later behavior.

12
Based on research about human behavior, the
conclusion your text makes is
  • A) heredity is much more important.
  • B) the environment is much more important.
  • C) the interaction of heredity and environment is
    more accurate.
  • D) our personalities are determined before birth.

13
6. Demitry Belyaev and Lyudmilla Trut
successfully
  • A) cloned a sheep that lived to adulthood.
  • B) mapped the human genome.
  • C) domesticated wild foxes by selective mating.
  • D) created the first hybrid of a plant and an
    animal combination.

14
7. According to Richard Lewontin, a noted
geneticist, if there was a world catastrophe and
only Kenyans survived
  • A) there would be an irretrievable loss of human
    diversity.
  • B) there would be a trivial reduction in human
    diversity.
  • C) the human race would evolve to a very unusual
    form.
  • D) future humans would be unable to deal with
    colder climates.

15
8. Nature selects behaviorsthat increase the
likelihood of sending ones genes into the
future, would be a fundamental statement made by
  • A) evolutionary psychology.
  • B) fundamental psychology.
  • C) functional psychology.
  • D) environmental psychology.

16
9. A major criticism of scientists against
evolutionary psychology is
  • A) people did not evolve from monkeys.
  • B) the bible gives the true origin of humans.
  • C) interpretations are far-fetched.
  • D) their theories start with an effect and work
    backwards to propose an explanation.

17
10. In studying worldwide mating preferences,
researchers have found that, in 37 countries
  • A) men prefer thinner women.
  • B) women prefer mates with wealth and status.
  • C) mating preferences differed according to
    cultural norms.
  • D) women are marrying younger than ever before.

18
11. Rats raised in more stimulating environments
resulted in
  • A) talented rats who could count to ten.
  • B) happier and more sociable rats.
  • C) larger brains and more synaptic connections.
  • D) increased sexual activity.

19
12. Shared environmental influences account for
___ of childrens personality differences.
  • A) less than 10 percent.
  • B) about 50 percent.
  • C) about 25 percent.
  • D) more than 50 percent.

20
13. Environmental influences in childhood are
more likely to affect ___ in adoptive children.
  • A) temperament
  • B) political attitudes
  • C) sexual preference
  • D) extraversion

21
14. When asked about her sons shyness, Mrs.
Jones responds, Oh, he will grow out of it.
You know that
  • A) she is probably right.
  • B) shyness is a lasting trait of temperament.
  • C) he was probably traumatized.
  • D) he probably learned this from modeling one of
    his parents.

22
15. Children who grow up hearing one accent of
speech at home and a different one from their
peers
  • A) do not develop accents.
  • B) develop accents similar to their parents.
  • C) develop accents similar to their peers.
  • D) has no relation to their own speech.

23
16. Each cultural group evolves its own rules for
expected and accepted behavior called
  • A) folkways.
  • B) unspoken rules.
  • C) etiquette.
  • D) norms.

24
17. Of all the cultures listed, choose the one
below that prefers the greatest amount of
personal space.
  • A) Arabs
  • B) British
  • C) French
  • D) Mexican

25
18. Frank was born with birth defects because his
mother used drugs while she was pregnant with
him. This illustrates the harmful influence of
  • A) genetic coding.
  • B) natural selection.
  • C) prenatal environments.
  • D) inadequate parenting.

26
19. Identical twins can differ in their
development before they are born in cases of
  • A) genetic mutations.
  • B) two placentas.
  • C) different fathers.
  • D) alcohol abuse.

27
20. If a teenager is beginning to use drugs, it
is most likely the result of
  • A) misinformation.
  • B) poor parenting.
  • C) peer pressure.
  • D) cultural influences.

28
21. Boys usually play ____ and girls usually play
____.
  • A) socially aggressively
  • B) aggressively competitively
  • C) with one friend in large groups
  • D) large groups with an activity with one friend

29
22. When dealing with stress, women are more
often likely to
  • A) have emotional breakdowns.
  • B) turn to others for support.
  • C) become aggressive.
  • D) run away.

30
23. When a female fetus is exposed to too much
testosterone, the result is most often
  • A) she will be more tomboyish until puberty.
  • B) she will grow up to be a lesbian.
  • C) she will think of herself as a boy trapped in
    a girls body.
  • D) all of the above.

31
24 A set of expectations about the way men and
women should behave are
  • A) cultural norms.
  • B) gender identity.
  • C) male-female constructs.
  • D) gender roles.

32
25. According to ___, children learn
gender-linked behaviors by observing and
imitating or by being reinforced.
  • A) behavioral theory
  • B) gender schema theory
  • C) social learning theory
  • D) cultural determinism theory

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. Identical twins develop from
  • A) a single egg and two sperms.
  • B) two eggs and a single sperm.
  • C) a single egg and a single sperm.
  • D) two eggs and two sperms.

36
2. A spiraling, complex molecule containing
genes is called
  • A) DNA.
  • B) a chromosome.
  • C) a genome.
  • D) a gene complex.

37
3. In adoption studies, scientists have found
  • A) adopted children have personalities closer to
    the parents who raised them.
  • B) adopted children have personalities closer to
    the other children they were raised with.
  • C) adopted children have personalities shaped
    predominantly from their environments.
  • D) adopted children have personalities closer
    to their biological parents.

38
4. Mitch was extremely emotionally inhibited and
fearful as a 2 year-old, and at age 6 continued
to be very shy. This illustrates the importance
of
  • A) parenting styles.
  • B) temperament.
  • C) chromosomal matching.
  • D) early trauma on later behavior.

39
Based on research about human behavior, the
conclusion your text makes is
  • A) heredity is much more important.
  • B) the environment is much more important.
  • C) the interaction of heredity and environment is
    more accurate.
  • D) our personalities are determined before birth.

40
6. Demitry Belyaev and Lyudmilla Trut
successfully
  • A) cloned a sheep that lived to adulthood.
  • B) mapped the human genome.
  • C) domesticated wild foxes by selective mating.
  • D) created the first hybrid of a plant and an
    animal combination.

41
7. According to Richard Lewontin, a noted
geneticist, if there was a world catastrophe and
only Kenyans survived
  • A) there would be an irretrievable loss of human
    diversity.
  • B) there would be a trivial reduction in human
    diversity.
  • C) the human race would evolve to a very unusual
    form.
  • D) future humans would be unable to deal with
    colder climates.

42
8. Nature selects behaviorsthat increase the
likelihood of sending ones genes into the
future, would be a fundamental statement made by
  • A) evolutionary psychology.
  • B) fundamental psychology.
  • C) functional psychology.
  • D) environmental psychology.

43
9. A major criticism of scientists against
evolutionary psychology is
  • A) people did not evolve from monkeys.
  • B) the bible gives the true origin of humans.
  • C) interpretations are far-fetched.
  • D) their theories start with an effect and work
    backwards to propose an explanation.

44
10. In studying worldwide mating preferences,
researchers have found that, in 37 countries
  • A) men prefer thinner women.
  • B) women prefer mates with wealth and status.
  • C) mating preferences differed according to
    cultural norms.
  • D) women are marrying younger than ever before.

45
11. Rats raised in more stimulating environments
resulted in
  • A) talented rats who could count to ten.
  • B) happier and more sociable rats.
  • C) larger brains and more synaptic connections.
  • D) increased sexual activity.

46
12. Shared environmental influences account for
___ of childrens personality differences.
  • A) less than 10 percent.
  • B) about 50 percent.
  • C) about 25 percent.
  • D) more than 50 percent.

47
13. Environmental influences in childhood are
more likely to affect ___ in adoptive children.
  • A) temperament
  • B) political attitudes
  • C) sexual preference
  • D) extraversion

48
14. When asked about her sons shyness, Mrs.
Jones responds, Oh, he will grow out of it.
You know that
  • A) she is probably right.
  • B) shyness is a lasting trait of temperament.
  • C) he was probably traumatized.
  • D) he probably learned this from modeling one of
    his parents.

49
15. Children who grow up hearing one accent of
speech at home and a different one from their
peers
  • A) do not develop accents.
  • B) develop accents similar to their parents.
  • C) develop accents similar to their peers.
  • D) has no relation to their own speech.

50
16. Each cultural group evolves its own rules for
expected and accepted behavior called
  • A) folkways.
  • B) unspoken rules.
  • C) etiquette.
  • D) norms.

51
17. Of all the cultures listed, choose the one
below that prefers the greatest amount of
personal space.
  • A) Arabs
  • B) British
  • C) French
  • D) Mexican

52
18. Frank was born with birth defects because his
mother used drugs while she was pregnant with
him. This illustrates the harmful influence of
  • A) genetic coding.
  • B) natural selection.
  • C) prenatal environments.
  • D) inadequate parenting.

53
19. Identical twins can differ in their
development before they are born in cases of
  • A) genetic mutations.
  • B) two placentas.
  • C) different fathers.
  • D) alcohol abuse.

54
20. If a teenager is beginning to use drugs, it
is most likely the result of
  • A) misinformation.
  • B) poor parenting.
  • C) peer pressure.
  • D) cultural influences.

55
21. Boys usually play ____ and girls usually play
____.
  • A) socially aggressively
  • B) aggressively competitively
  • C) with one friend in large groups
  • D) in large groups with an activity with one
    friend

56
22. When dealing with stress, women are more
often likely to
  • A) have emotional breakdowns.
  • B) turn to others for support.
  • C) become aggressive.
  • D) run away.

57
23. When a female fetus is exposed to too much
testosterone, the result is most often
  • A) she will be more tomboyish until puberty.
  • B) she will grow up to be a lesbian.
  • C) she will think of herself as a boy trapped in
    a girls body.
  • D) all of the above.

58
24 A set of expectations about the way men and
women should behave are
  • A) cultural norms.
  • B) gender identity.
  • C) male-female constructs.
  • D) gender roles.

59
25. According to ___, children learn
gender-linked behaviors by observing and
imitating or by being reinforced.
  • A) behavioral theory
  • B) gender schema theory
  • C) social learning theory
  • D) cultural determinism theory

60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Ninth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers (2010)

61
Answers
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. B
5. C
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. B
11. C
12. A
13. B
14. B
15. C
16. D
17. B
18. C
19. B
20. C
21. D
22. B
23. A
24. D
25. C
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