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Part A Text (Teach Your Child to Wonder)

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Unit 5 Part A Text (Teach Your Child to Wonder) Part B Grammar( ) Part C Supplementary Reading (Benchmarking Practices at Xerox) I. Background Information B.F ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part A Text (Teach Your Child to Wonder)


1
Unit 5
  • Part A Text (Teach Your Child to Wonder)
  • Part B Grammar(??)
  • Part C Supplementary Reading (Benchmarking
    Practices at Xerox)

2
I. Background Information
  • B.F. Skinner's quote "Education is what survives
    when what has been learned has been forgotten."
  • B .F. Skinner???(1904-1990)
  • ??????????,??????????,?????????????????????????
    ?????? ?????1950???????????,1958??????????????????
    ,1968???????????????????????

3
  • ?????????
  • BF???(Burrhus Frederic Skinner,19041990)1904
    ?3?20????????????????????????????????,????1922????
    ???????,????????????,??????,?????????????????,????
    ?,???????????,??????????????,?????????????,???????
    ?????????,?????????????1930?????????,1931?????????
    ???????????1936??1944???????????????,1945?????????
    ????????,1948?????????????,??1974????????,??1958??
    ??????????????1968???????????????????1971?????
    ??????????????

4
  • ?????????????1938????????????????(The Behavior
    of OrganismsAn Experimental Analysis)??????,????
    ????????????,???????????,?????????????????????????
    ?????????(Science and Human Behavior)(1953)?????
    ???????????,????????????1968?????????(The
    Technology of Teaching)??????????????????????,??1
    948??????????(Walden Two)?1971???????????(Beyon
    d Freedom and Dignity)???????????????????????,???
    ?????????????????????????????????,???????????????
    ?,??????????????(Verbal Behavior)(1957)???????
    ???????(Contingencies of ReinforcementA
    Theoretical Analysis)(1969)???????(About
    Behaviorism)(1974)?

5
II. Language Points
  • 1. Sadly, far too few schools make seience
    appealing.
  • appeal (i) n. A. an earnest or urgent request,
    entreaty, or supplication. ??,??
  • e.g. He was appealing for funds to build a
    new school.
  • ??????????????
  • B. A resort or application to a higher authority,
    as for sanction, corroboration, or a
    decision??,???
  • e.g. Their appeal for help went unheeded.
  • ?????????????
  • C. law The transfer of a case from a lower to a
    higher court for a new hearing. ??
  • e.g. His lawyer decided to take an appeal
    to a higher court.
  • ???????????????

6
  • D. The power of attracting or of
    arousing interest???,???
  • e.g. The new fashion soon lost its appeal.
  • ???????????????
  • (ii) v. A. ask for aid or protection ??
  • e.g. I appeal to your sense of justice.
  • ??????????
  • B. take a court case to a higher court
    for review,??
  • e.g. She appealed to the high court against
    her sentence.
  • ??????????????
  • Useful expression
  • appeal to ? ... ?????,
  • appeal for  ??

7
  • 2. The irony is that children start out as
    nautral scientists, instinctively eager to
    investigate the world around them.
  • children start out as nautral scientists
    children are born natural scientists.
  • Irony sarcasm, satire, caustic remark n.??,??
  • e.g. That's really lovely, that is!' he
    said with heavy irony.
  • ???????,??!'???????
  • instinctively as a matter of instinct adv. ?????
  • e.g. Instinctively, she dropped to her
    belly to crawl.
  • ?????????????
  • be eager to do or have something want to do or
    have it very much. . keen
  • Robert was eager to talk about life in the
    Army...

8
  • 3. The children asked me textbook questions
    about schooling,aslary, whether I liked my job.
  • textbook questions refers to questions that are
    nomal and not particular or special.
  • 4. This began a barrage of questions that
    lasted nealy two hours.
  • a barrage of questions a large number of
    questions
  • barrage the rapid and continuous delivery of
    linguistic communication (spoken or written)
  • e.g.  A barrage of criticism.
  • ??????????

9
  • 5. That reinforces the misconceotion that ceience
    is merely a set of facts stored in the besds of
    adults.
  • misconception an incorrect conception
    n.  ??, ????
  • e.g. My misconception of her purpose
    cast a damp over her spirits.
  • ???????,???????
  • My misconception of her purpose cast a
    damp over her spirits.
  • ???????,???????

10
  • 6. Science is not just facts but the meaning that
    people give to them by weaving information.
  • Science is not just facts but the meaning that
    people give to them notice the structure not
    but ????
  • 7. Grown-ups are notorious for expecting quicker
    answers.
  • notorious known widely and usually unfavorably
    ill-famed infamousadj.  ?????
  • e.g. He is notorious for his goings-on.
  • ?????????????
  • Useful expression
  • notorious reputation ????
  • notorious for ?, ? ... ??

11
  • 8. Rather than telling children what to think,
    give them time to think for themselves.
  • Rather than for themselves. rather than
    here means instead of..
  • 9. Once you have achild engaged in a science
    discussion, dont jump in with That right or
    Very good.
  • jump in it here means interrupt??, 
    (??????)??
  • e.g.Please don't chop in as much as
    you're doing.
  • ??????????????
  • Useful expression
  • jump in the lake ??, ??, ???
  • ...jump in with both... ???????

12
  • 10. These verbal rewards work well when it comes
    to encouraging good behaviour.
  • These verbal good behaviour. in terms of
    encouraging good behaviour
  • 11. Never exhort a child to Think!
  • exhort spur on or encourage especially by
    cheers and shouts cheer inspire, urge, barrack
    v.  ??,  ??
  • e.g. The chairman exhorted the party
    workers to take action.
  • ???????????????
  • He often exhorts Mary to work
    harder.
  • ???????????????

13
  • 12. If you take your children to a hands-on
    science museum, dont manage their itinerary.
  • hands-on science museum refers to museum that
    you can try and experience the science exhibits
    yourself.
  • itinerary (i) n. ?an established line of travel
    or access, path, route ?a guidebook for
    travelers travel guidebook ?a proposed route of
    travel travel plan ????, ??, ??
  • e.g. I need to discuss our itinerary
    with you.
  • ??????????????
  • (ii) adj.  ??? e.g. But
    reality is, that change is only endless and
    hardship is itinerary germinant.
  • ????,???????????????????

14
  • 13. And they will see clearly that learning is
    not drudgery or something that happens only in
    school.
  • drudgery hard monotonous routine work
    plodding, grind, donkeywork n.   ???, ??
    e.g. This sentiment still survives, and it has
    piled up mountains of useless drudgery.
  • ??????????,??????????????
  • This flexibility has the added
    benefit of breaking up any sense of endless
    routine or day in day out drudgery.
  • ???????????????????????????????????

15
Part B Grammar??(Participles)
  • ?????????????????????-ing?-ed, -d,
    -t,-en?-n???????????,???????,????????????,???,????
    ?????????????????
  • ???????????????,????????????????????????????????"
    ?????",??????"?????"(???????????????,?????)???????
    ??????????????

16
?. ?????
  • 1? ?????
  • ?????????,???????????????????????
  • ??(??)????,???????????????.????????????????????,
    ??????????,???????????????, ?????????????????????
    ???
  • (1)????The students went out of the classroom,
    laughing and talking.
  • (2)????Accompanied by his friend, he went to
    the railway station. Given better attention, the
    plants could grow better.
  • 2?"while ( when, once, until, if ,
    though???)??"??
  • ?????????????,?????????while,when, once,
    although, until, if????
  • When leaving the airport, she waved again and
    again to us. While waiting for the train, I had a
    long talk with my sister about her work
  • Once recovered, he threw himself into his work
    and made every effort to do it well.
  • Although working very hard, he failed to pass
    the final exam. If translated word by word, the
    passage will be difficult to understand.

17
  • 3??????
  • ??????,?????????????????,???????????????????????
    ???????????(?????????),??????????????(?????????)?
  • We will go on with our experiment as soon as we
    get the added fund.
  • 4?????????
  • ?????see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel,
    find, glimpse, glance??????look at, listen
    to???????have, keep, get, catch, leave, set,
    start, send???????????????????,?????????
  • 5????????
  • ????????????????????????,?????????????????
    ????,??????

18
  • ?.???????
  • 1) ???
  • He was very amusing.
  • That book was rather boring.
  • ???????????????
  • exciting, interesting, encouraging,
    disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.
  • 2) ???
  • ?????????????????, ??????
  • That must have been a terrifying experience.
  • I found him a charming person.
  • ????????????????????, ?????????
  • There are a few boys swimming in the river.
  • There is a car waiting outside.

19
  • 3) ???
  • ??????????????????????????
  • Following Tom, we started to climb the
    mountain.
  • ?????????????, ???????????
  • Not knowing her address, we couldnt get in
    touch with her.
  • ?????????????, ???????????
  • Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
  • Returning home, he began to do his homework.
  • 4)???
  • ???????????????????
  • ??, see, hear, catch, find, keep , have ?.
  • I see him passing my house every day.
  • I caught him stealing things in that shop.

20
  • ?.???????
  • 1) ???
  • We were so bored that we couldnt help yawning.
  • She felt confused, and even frightened.
  • 2) ???
  • She has a pleased look on her face.
  • The teacher gave us a satisfied smile.
  • 3)???
  • Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.
  • Given good health, I hope to finish the work
    this year.
  • 4)???
  • ???????????????, ????????
  • I will have the clothes washed tomorrow.
  • When they get back home, they found the room
    robbed.

21
Part C Benchmarking ????
  • What is Benchmarking
  • Benchmarking is the process of determining who is
    the very best, who sets the standard, and what
    that standard is. In baseball, you could argue
    that seven consecutive World Series Championships
    made the New York Yankees the benchmark.
  • If we were to benchmark "world conquest", what
    objective measure would we use to compare Julius
    Caesar to Adolph Hitler Gengis Khan to Napoleon?
    Which of them was the epitome, and why?
  • We do the same thing in business. Who is the best
    sales organization? The most responsive customer
    service department? The leanest manufacturing
    operation? And how do we quantify that standard?

22
  • Related Issues
  • Once we decide what to benchmark, and how to
    measure it, the object is to or Quality
    Improvement initiative.
  • What can I Benchmark figure out how the winner
    got to be the best and determine what we have to
    do to get there.
  • Benchmarking is usually part of a larger effort,
    usually a Process Re-engineering
  • Most of the early work in the area of
    benchmarking was done in manufacturing, like the
    example above. Now benchmarking is a management
    tool that is being applied almost anywhere. The
    Fortune Magazine article "Beat the Budget and
    Astound your CFO" outlines how Rank Xerox even
    applied benchmarking to their sales effort.
    (Note This article is now in their archives and
    there is a small fee if you are not a subscriber.)

23
  • ??/???(Benchmarking),????????????,????????????????
    ???,??/???????????????????,??,????????????????????
    ????,???????(Best Practice)???????(Exemplary Pract
    ices),???????(Business Excellence)?????,??????????
    ???????,???????????,???????????,??????????????????
    ??,?????????????,???????????????,??????,??????????
    ?,????,?????
  • ??/?????????????Standards Benchmarking)?????/???(P
    rocess Benchmarking)???????(Results
    Benchmarking),??????,??/???????????????????????,??
    ????????????,?????????????????

24
  • practice(??????)??
  • It is normal practice not to reveal details of a
    patient's condition...
  • deserve?????
  • Government officials clearly deserve some of the
    blame as well...
  • These people deserve to make more than the
    minimum wage...
  • He deserves the honor. You deserve it!
  • Credit
  • 1.Belief or confidence in the truth of something.
    ??,??
  • 2. A reputation for sound character or quality??
  • You should have no trouble getting the loan if
    your credit is good.???????,???????????????
  • 3.A source of honor or distinction??
  • She is a credit to her family.???????
  • 4. Approval for an act, ability, or quality
    praise ??,??
  • Why should he get all the credit???????????????
  • 5. A unit of study so certified??
  • This course carries three credits.?????????

25
  • inspire sb to do????
  • Our challenge them to join our cause is to
    motivate those voters and inspire...
  • Inspiration
  • 1.Stimulation of the mind or emotions to a high
    level of feeling or activity. ??
  • 2. Something, such as a sudden creative act or
    idea, that is inspired.??

26
  • Legendary???, ???
  • ...the legendary Jazz singer Adelaide Hall...His
    political skill is legendary.
  • turn-around a complete change in opinion,
    attitude, or method. a sudden improvement????,????
    I have personally never done such a complete
    turnaround in my opinion of a person...The deal
    marks a turnaround in the fortunes of South Wales
    Electricity.
  • solid support
  • We need to lay a solid foundation to make further
    progress in the language.
  • integral???integrated
  • cascadepermeate??
  • numerous??????C pl.
  • Sex crimes were just as numerous as they are
    today...
  • Despite numerous attempts to diet, her weight
    soared.

27
  • cottage industry????
  • spring up surge unexpectedly/suddenly????
  • last year alone????
  • hit the stand
  • consultant consult sb for sth look up
  • Please consult the dictionary for the meaning of
    the word.
  • the number of has grown
  • considerable- y dramatically, drastically
    considerate???
  • formal?? normal

28
  • continued, continuous continual
  • continuous unbroken
  • Residents report that they heard continuous
    gunfire.
  • ..all employees who had a record of five years'
    continuous employment with the firm...
  • Continual events happen again and again.
  • ..the government's continual demands for cash to
    finance its chronic deficit...
  • She suffered continual police harassment.

29
  • measure ?????
  • I continued to measure his progress against the
    charts in the doctor's office...
  • It was difficult to measure the precise impact of
    the labor action.
  • against ?? It is against the law to detain you
    against your will for any length of time...
  • I am against your proposal.
  • ????? The US dollar is down against most foreign
    currencies today.
  • His figure stands distinct against the snow.
  • be renowned as/for??? The area is renowned for
    its Romanesque churches...

30
  • decline
  • 1.????
  • He declined their invitation...
  • He offered the boys some coffee.
  • 2. ??,??,??
  • There wasn't such a big decline in enrollments
    after all...
  • The first signs of economic decline became
    visible.
  • on the decline/fall,??,??
  • Thankfully the smoking of cigarettes is on the
    decline...
  • boost increase, improve boost prices ????
  • efforts to boost participation in the
    program.??????????
  • a bill intended to boost local charities.?????????
    ????????
  • gene genetic engineering generic ???
  • to sbs advantage ???
  • He did all to his own advantage, not yours.
  • For sbs sake, interests, benefit, purpose,
    consideration, good

31
  • regard n ????
  • show regard for sb v regarding??,concerning
    regardless
  • in essence???
  • Though seemingly complicated in detail, local
    taxes are in essence simple.
  • subsequently???
  • consequently??, ??as a result, as a consequence.
  • in sequence  in order

32
  • identify????????
  • Police have already identified around 10 murder
    suspects...
  • The reporters identified one of the six Americans
    as an Army Specialist...
  • oversee supervise, monitor
  • Use a surveyor or architect to oversee and
    inspect the different stages of the work.
  • entail ????? ??
  • This new job entails much patience. Such a
    decision would entail a huge political risk...

33
  • prior to before
  • Prior to his Japan trip, he went to New York...
  • in line with???
  • in total In summary To summarize To sum up
  • pay, pay off????
  • It pays off to be careful when dealing with
    dangerous materials such as this.
  • embark on start out on
  • I should think twice before I ed on such a
    hazardous project as that.
  • He is about to on a new business venture.

34
  • Thank you!
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