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Continuous tenses and continuing learning:

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Continuous tenses and continuing learning: a broader view of grammar, learning processes and teaching strategies Jane Willis www.willis-elt.co.uk – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Continuous tenses and continuing learning:


1
Continuous tenses and continuing learning a
broader view of grammar, learning processes and
teaching strategies Jane Willis www.willis-elt.
co.uk
2
1 There is no direct and predictable relationship
between teaching and learning. 2 Some aspects of
language seem to be known and not known at the
same time. (Learning and acquisition). 3
Learners pick up language they have not been
taught. 4 Learners create language to meet
their needs. 5 Instruction does seem to make
learning more efficient.
3
Grammar of structure
some examples
Learning process recognition
4
Recognition
She working
? She is working
The cat black
? The black cat
She is working at home ? Is she working? Shell
be working at home ? Will she be working ?
I know a guy who he lives near here.
5
Grammar of orientation
6
We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something that is happening at the moment of
speaking Im just leaving work. Ill be home
in an hour. Please be quiet. The children are
sleeping.
7
We use the present simple tense to talk about
something that is true in the present in general
He lives in London. something that
happens again and again in the present I
play football every weekend.
8
Explanation Demonstration
Operation (???)
9
We use the present continuous tense to talk about
something that is happening at the moment of
speaking Im just leaving work. Ill be home
in an hour. Please be quiet. The children are
sleeping.
We use the present simple tense to talk about
something that is in the present in general
Im nineteen years old. He lives in
London. and something that happens again and
again in the present I play football every
weekend.
10
Advantages of recognition 1 The rules are simple
and teachable 2 Learning and applying simple
rules provides motivation 3 It can provide a
good description of some aspects of grammar
Problems with recognition 1 It cannot provide
full coverage of grammar 2 It often involves
gross oversimplification 3 For much of the
grammar the rules, particularly the contrasts,
do not work 4 There is no link to operation to
spontaneous use
11
  • for something that is happening at the moment of
    speaking
  • for something which is happening before and after
    a given time
  • At eight oclock we are usually having
    breakfast. When I get home the children are
    doing their homework.
  • for something which we think is temporary
  • Michael is at university. Hes studying
    history. Im working in London for the next two
    weeks.

12
4 for something which is new and contrasts with a
previous state These days most people are
using email instead of writing letters. What
sort of music are teenagers listening to
nowadays? 5 to show that something is changing,
growing or developing The climate is changing
rapidly. Your English is improving.
13
(No Transcript)
14
The interrupted past While he was reading the
newspaper The interrupted present At eight
oclock we are usually having breakfast The
interrupted future When I get home the
children will be doing their homework. The
interrupted At eight oclock they might have
been waiting for a call.
15
  • We use continuous aspect
  • for something which is happening before and
    after a given time past, present, future...
  • for something which we think is temporary.
  • for something new contrasting with a previous
    state.
  • to talk about something changing, growing or
    developing.
  • to talk about something continuing for some
    time

16
A framework for recycling from recognition to
system building
Individual VERB forms
talking about the present/past/future
aspect
Recognition
System building
17
PREPOSITION
meanings
verb patterns
Recognition
System building
18
FOR a How long time and distance We waited
for an hour They walked for half a mile b
Reason. What for? for example. c Who wants or
needs? Can you do it for me?
19
Verb patterns with for How long a Time live,
last, survive, Distance extend stretch b
Reason ask argue look hunt search shop
wait plan arrange prepare train compensate
apologise volunteer sign on show up. c Who
wants/needs work act fight speak deputise
substitute stand in speak pray speak up
care feel grieve.
20
Advantages of system-building 1 It recognises
grammar as a system of choices 2 and that
choices are determined by meaning 3 It enables
us to make powerful generalisations 4 It provides
a framework for recycling 5 It encourages
learners to look for systems in language and
continue learning independently
21
Problems with system building 1 It cannot
explain why people make their choices 2 Some
systems defy explanation because they are too
subtle and complex 3 No link to operation
students still dont seem to use it
22
Recognition System building
Exploration (Consciousness raising)
23
Task-based lesson Talking about
holiday plans Task cycle Task, planning,
report Focus on form Exploration of language in
a familiar text or transcript of a
recording Consciousness-raising
24
B Janet, I hear youre planning a trip to
Africa. J Yes its very exciting. Going in
September to see my son whos doing volunteer
work in Zambia. So Im going to fly to Lusaka and
hell meet me there and well do a bit of
travelling round. I think were going to be
staying most of the time in Monze, where hes
working. Its about a hundred miles south of
Lusaka. But were planning all sorts of exciting
things. Were going to go on safari B How
long are you actually going for? J Oh, six
weeks. Quite a long time so we can do quite a
lot. I think were going to one of the big game
parks Luangwa a game park for a few days.
25
  • FUTURE
  • Janet, I hear youre planning a trip to Africa.
  • Going in September to see my son whos doing
    volunteer work in Zambia.
  • So Im going to fly to Lusaka
  • hell meet me there and well do a bit of
    travelling round.
  • I think were going to be staying most of the
    time in Monze,
  • But were planning all sorts of exciting things.
    Were going to go on safari
  • How long are you actually going for?
  • Quite a long time so we can do quite a lot.
  • I think were going to one of the big game parks.

26
B Janet, I hear a trip to
Africa. J Yes its very exciting. in
September to see my son whos doing volunteer
work in Zambia. So I to Lusaka
and he me there and we a bit of
travelling round. I think we
most of the time in Monze, where hes
working. Its about a hundred miles south of
Lusaka. But were planning all sorts of exciting
things. We on safari B How
long you actually for? J Oh, six
weeks. Quite a long time so we quite a
lot. I think we to one of the big game
parks Luangwa a game park for a few days.
27
  • Verbs with for can be divided into groups
  • A. Supporting or helping someone or something
    stick up for, fight for, work for.
  • B. Trying to find something or get something
    look for, listen for, send (away) for, try for
  • What group do you think these phrases belong to?
  • We are collecting for the National Soc. for the
    Blind.
  • Jack has applied for a job with the BBC.
  • Im going to vote for Peter Jackson.
  • Shes hoping for a job in television.
  • Look out for Michelle when youre at school.
  • The church should speak for the poor.

28
  • Why do we need to encourage exploration?
  • It provides insights into why choices are made
  • It encourages learners to work for themselves on
    systems that defy explanation
  • It encourages learners to work with open ended
    systems (e.g. verbs followed by for)
  • It provides a link with operation

29
1 There is no direct and predictable relationship
between teaching and learning. 2 Some aspects of
language seem to be known and not known at the
same time. (Learning and acquisition). 3
Instruction does seem to make learning more
efficient. 4 Learners also pick up language they
have not been taught. 5 Learners create language
to meet their needs.
30
The most powerful resource for learning is the
natural capacity of the learner to solve problems
and create language 4 Learners pick up language
they have not been taught. (Different learners
will pick up different things.) 5 Learners
create language to meet their needs. (Learners
needs may be different too.) And we need to give
them space and encouragement to do this, so...
31
We should help learners with the simple things
(recognition) and introduce them to more complex
grammar (system building) as a means to help
them to explore the language and discover for
themselves the real complexities of grammar as a
meaning system.
32
And we as teachers should continue to explore
beyond the grammar that is presented in our text
books and look for broader generalisations...
33

Dave Willis 2003 Rules, Patterns and Words
Grammar and Lexis in English Language Teaching
Cambridge Language Teaching Library Dave Willis
2015 Winning the Grammar Wars What grammar
really is and how we use it Kindle eBook
Dave Willis and Jane Willis 2007 Doing
Task-based Teaching Oxford University
Press www.willis-elt.co.uk
34
Dave Willis 2003 Rules, Patterns and Words
Grammar and Lexis in English Language Teaching
Cambridge Language Teaching Library Dave Willis
2015 Winning the Grammar Wars What grammar
really is and how we use it Kindle eBook
Dave Willis and Jane Willis 2007 Doing
Task-based Teaching Oxford University
Press www.willis-elt.co.uk
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