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Culture

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Culture What is Culture? All the shared products of human groups (physical objects and beliefs, values and behaviors) Material culture - physical objects Nonmaterial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture


1
Culture
2
What is Culture?
  • All the shared products of human groups (physical
    objects and beliefs, values and behaviors)
  • Material culture - physical objects
  • Nonmaterial culture - beliefs, family patterns,
    ideas and language

3
Society
  • Group of interdependent people who have organized
    in such a way as to share a common culture and
    feeling of unity
  • Consists of people

4
Components of Culture
  • Both learned and shared
  • Choose from a broad set of material and
    nonmaterial elements of culture
  • Different material and nonmaterial elements of
    culture vary but have same components
    (technology, symbols, language, values, and norms)

5
1. Technology
  • Physical objects with rules on how to use objects
  • Ex. The internet
  • How to access web/computer and rules of internet
    (No hacking)
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v7Pq-S557XQU

6
2. Symbols
  • Create our culture and communicate it to group
    members and future generations
  • Shared meaning attached to it
  • Varies from culture to culture

7
3. Language
  • Organization of written or spoken symbols into a
    standardized system
  • American form of English
  • Our understanding of reality depends on our
    language

8
4. Values
  • Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right
    or wrong, desirable or undesirable
  • Types of values held by a group help to determine
    the character of its people and the kinds of
    material and nonmaterial culture

9
5. Norms
  • Enforces the values of a society
  • Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to
    act in specific situations
  • Values Democratic Gov respect American flag
    elected officials
  • EXPECTED behavior not actual behavior
  • Treating others with respect

10
Norms cont
  • Some unimportant others important
  • Some apply to everyone others to just a few
  • Some apply everywhere others geographically
    selective

11
Folkways
  • Socially acceptable behavior but do not have
    great moral significance attached to them
  • Common customs of everyday life
  • Some degree of nonconformity b/c it does not
    endanger the well being of society

12
Mores
  • Great moral significance
  • Violation believed to endanger societys
    well-being
  • Drug use
  • Couples living together before marriage

13
Taboos
  • Norm that society holds so strongly that
    violation results in extreme disgust
  • Violators usually seen as unfit to live in
    society
  • Cannibalism
  • Incest

14
Laws
  • Norms that are formally defined and enforced by a
    society
  • Laws can emerge from mores
  • Murder
  • Theft
  • Laws can also emerge from folkways
  • Marijuana
  • Speeding laws

15
More about Culture
  • Dynamic rather than static
  • Three levels of complexity
  • Traits
  • Complexes
  • Patterns

16
Culture Traits
  • Simplest level of culture - individual tool, act,
    or belief that is related to a particular
    situation

17
Culture Complexes
  • Individual traits combined - cluster of
    interrelated traits
  • Ex. Football
  • Specific beliefs related to it

18
Culture Patterns
  • Form larger levels - combination of a number of
    culture complexes into an interrelated whole
  • Ex. American athletic pattern
  • Competitive values
  • Individual v. Team achievement
  • Association with teams

19
How does society enforce culture?
  • Sanctions Rewards and punishments used to
    encourage people to follow norms
  • Formal Sanctions Sanctions imposed by authority
    figures
  • Getting a detention
  • Going to prison!

20
How does society enforce culture?
  • Informal Sanctions Rewards or punishments that
    can be applied by most members of a group
  • Peer pressure
  • Compliments
  • Glaring at someone who is talking in a movie
    theater

21
American Values
  • Achievement and Success
  • Individualism
  • Activity and work
  • Efficiency and practicality
  • Science and rationality
  • Progress
  • Material comfort

22
American Values
  • Equality
  • Freedom
  • Democracy
  • Humanitarianism
  • Racism and group superiority
  • Education
  • Religiosity
  • Romantic love and monogamy
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