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Chapter 3, Culture

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Title: Chapter 3, Culture


1
Chapter 3, Culture
  • Key Terms

2
  • culture The knowledge, language, values, customs
    and material objects that are passed from person
    to person and from one generation to the next in
    a human group or society.
  • material culture The physical or tangible
    creations that members of a society make, use,
    and share.

3
  • nonmaterial culture The abstract or intangible
    human creations of society that influence
    peoples behavior.
  • cultural universals Customs and practices that
    occur across all societies.

4
  • symbol Anything that meaningfully represents
    something else.
  • language A set of symbols that expresses ideas
    and enables people to think and communicate with
    one another.

5
  • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Language shapes the
    reality of its speakers.
  • values Collective ideas about what is right or
    wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable
    in a particular culture.

6
  • norms Established rules of behavior or standards
    of conduct.
  • sanctions Rewards for appropriate behavior or
    penalties for inappropriate behavior.

7
  • folkways Informal norms or everyday customs that
    may be violated without serious consequences
    within a particular culture.
  • mores A particular cultures strongly held norms
    with moral and ethical connotations that may not
    be violated without serious consequences.

8
  • taboos Mores so strong that their violation is
    considered extremely offensive and
    unmentionable.
  • laws Formal, standardized norms that have been
    enacted by legislatures and are enforced by
    formal sanctions.

9
  • technology The knowledge, techniques, and tools
    that allow people to transform resources into
    useable forms and the knowledge and skills
    required to use what is developed.
  • cultural lag A gap between the technical
    development of a society and its moral and legal
    institutions.

10
  • discovery The process of learning about something
    previously unknown or unrecognized.
  • invention The process of reshaping existing
    cultural items into a new form.

11
  • diffusion The transmission of cultural items or
    social practices from one group or society to
    another.
  • subculture A category of people who share
    distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and
    /or norms that set them apart in some significant
    manner from the dominant culture.

12
  • counterculture A group that strongly reflects
    dominant societal values and norms and seeks
    alternative lifestyles.
  • culture shock The disorientation people feel when
    they encounter cultures radically different from
    their own.

13
  • ethnocentrism The practice of judging all other
    cultures by ones own culture.
  • popular culture Activities, products and services
    that are assumed to appeal primarily to member so
    the middle and working classes.

14
  • cultural Imperialism The extensive infusion of on
    nation's culture into other nations.
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