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Renewable Energy and Conservation

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Renewable Energy and Conservation Cogeneration Production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel Saving Energy at Home * Overview of Chapter 13 Direct Solar ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Energy and Conservation


1
Renewable Energy and Conservation
2
Overview of Chapter 13
  • Direct Solar Energy
  • Heating Buildings and Water
  • Solar Thermal Electric Generation
  • Photovoltaic Solar Cells
  • Indirect Solar Energy
  • Biomass Energy
  • Wind Energy
  • Hydropower
  • Other Renewable Energy Sources
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Tidal Energy
  • High and Low Technology Energy Solution
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
  • Energy Efficiency

3
Direct Solar Energy
  • Varies with latitude, season, time of day, and
    cloud cover

4
Heating Buildings and Water
  • Passive solar energy
  • system of putting the suns energy to use without
    requiring mechanical devices to distribute the
    collected heat
  • Certain design features can enhance passive solar
    energys heating potential
  • South facing windows (in N. hemisphere)
  • Well insulated buildings
  • Attic vents
  • Overhangs and solar sunspaces

5
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6
Solar sunspace
  • Utilizes passive solar energy to heat and cool
    homes
  • Can

7
Heating Buildings and Water
  • Active Solar Energy
  • System of collecting and absorbing the suns
    energy, and using pumps or fans distribute the
    collected heat
  • Most common
  • Series of collection devices on roofs or in
    fields
  • Typically a black panel or plate
  • Used to heat water

8
Heating Buildings and Water
  • Solar Thermal Electric Generation
  • Means of producing electricity in which the suns
    energy is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to
    either heat a fluid filled pipe or drive a
    Stirling engine
  • More efficient than other solar technologies
  • Benefits
  • No air pollution
  • No contribution to global warming or acid
    precipitation

9
Solar Thermal Electric Generation
10
Photovoltaic Solar Cells
  • Thin cells are treated with certain metals so
    that they generate electricity when they absorb
    solar energy
  • Convert sunlight directly into energy
  • No pollution and minimal maintenance
  • Used on any scale
  • Lighted road signs
  • Entire buildings

11
Photovoltaic Solar Cells
  • Can be incorporated into building materials
  • Roofing shingles, Window glass, Tile
  • Experiments are currently being done with
    roadways.

12
Cost of Electrical Power Plants
13
Indirect Solar Energy
  • Biomass
  • Plant materials used as fuel
  • Ex wood, crop wastes, sawdust, and animal wastes
  • Contains energy from sun via photosynthesizing
    plants
  • Renewable when used no faster than it can be
    produced
  • Can convert to biogas or liquids
  • Ethanol and methanol

14
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass
  • Advantages
  • Reduces dependence on fossil fuels
  • Often uses waste materials
  • If trees are planted at same rate biomass is
    combusted, no net increase in atmospheric CO2
  • Disadvantages
  • Requires land, water and energy
  • Can lead to
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Soil erosion

15
Indirect Solar Energy
  • Wind Energy
  • Electric or mechanical energy obtained from
    surface air currents caused by solar warming of
    air
  • Worlds fastest growing source of energy
  • Wind results from sun warming the atmosphere
  • Varies in direction and magnitude
  • New wind turbines harness wind efficiently

16
Wind Energy
Most profitable in rural areas with constant
wind Few environmental problems
  • Kills birds and bats
  • No waste- clean source of energy
  • Biggest constraints
  • Cost
  • Public resistance

17
Indirect Solar Energy
  • Hydropower
  • Form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or
    falling water to generate mechanical energy or
    electricity
  • Suns energy drive hydrologic cycle
  • Most efficient energy source (90)

18
Hydropower
  • Generates 19 of worlds energy
  • Traditional hydropower
  • Only suited for large dams
  • New technology
  • May be able to utilize low flow waterways
  • Problems with Dams
  • Changes natural flow of rivers
  • Disrupts migratory fish patterns
  • Potential dam breaks

19
Other Indirect Solar Energy
  • Ocean waves
  • Produced by winds
  • Has potential to turn a turbine- and create
    electricity
  • Ocean Temperature Gradients
  • Use difference in temperature of surface and deep
    water to create electricity

20
Other Indirect Solar Energy
  • Ocean waves
  • Produced by winds
  • Has potential to turn a turbine- and create
    electricity
  • Ocean Temperature Gradients
  • Use difference in temperature of surface and deep
    water to create electricity

21
Indirect Solar Energy
  • Ocean Waves

22
Other Renewable Energy Sources
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Energy from the Earths interior for either space
    heating or generation of electricity
  • From Hydrothermal Reservoirs (left)
  • Created by volcanoes
  • Reservoirs used directly for heat or to generate
    electricity

23
Geothermal Energy
  • From hot, dry rock
  • Geothermal heat pumps
  • Use difference in temperature between surface and
    subsurface
  • Great for heating buildings
  • Expensive installation

24
Other Renewable Energy Sources
  • Tidal Energy
  • Form of renewable energy that relies of the ebb
    and flow of the tides to generate electricity
  • Typical difference between high and low tide is
    1-2 ft
  • Narrow bays may have greater variation
  • Energy can be captured with
  • A dam across the bay
  • A turbine similar to a wind turbine

25
Hydrogen as a Fuel Source
  • Advantages to Hydrogen as a fuel source
  • Very high energy density
  • Can be produced from any electrical source
  • Electrolysis (see illustration on next slide)
  • No greenhouse gases and few other pollutants
  • Can be use in vehicles
  • Disadvantages to Hydrogen as a fuel source
  • Highly volatile (requires special storage)
  • Relatively inefficient

26
Hydrogen as a Fuel Source-Electrolysis
27
Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  • Fuel cell
  • Device that directly converts chemical energy
    into electricity
  • Requires hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the
    air
  • Similar to a battery, only the reactants are
    supplied from outside source

28
Future Applications of Fuel Cells
  • Vehicles
  • Not yet commonly available
  • Hydrogen is not yet readily available as a fuel
    source
  • Batteries in cells phones or laptops

29
Energy Consumption Trends and Economics
30
Energy Efficiency
  • Amount of available energy in a source that is
    transformed into useful work
  • Ranges from 0100
  • Natural gas (cooking) 100
  • Natural gas (electricity) 60
  • Incandescent bulbs 2-3
  • Fluorescent bulbs 10
  • Light-emitting diodes 20
  • Pictured here

31
Energy Efficient Technologies
Compact Fluorescent light bulbs Condensing
furnaces
  • Super-insulated buildings
  • Energy efficient appliances
  • Automobiles
  • Aircraft

32
Energy Efficiency
  • Super-insulated buildings use 70-90 less energy
  • NAECA sets national standards for appliances
  • Refrigerators built post-2001 are 75 more
    efficient than those build in 1975
  • Payback of 135/yr!

33
Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings
34
Cogeneration
  • Production of two useful forms of energy from the
    same fuel

35
Saving Energy at Home
36
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