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Title: FROM%20ROMANTIC%20QUEST%20TO%20VICTORIAN%20ANTI-QUEST


1
BRITISH LITERATURE III
  • FROM ROMANTIC QUEST TO VICTORIAN ANTI-QUEST

Kate Liu, Fall 2012
2
OUTLINE
  1. General Introduction
  2. Romanticism
  3. William Blake
  4. About the Course

3
WHAT IS ROMANTICISM? AND VICTORIAN SOCIETY?
  • WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THEM?
  • CAN YOU FIND THEIR TRACES IN TAIWAN/TAIPEI?

4
ROMANTIC TAIPEI????
Of/For Romance, Emotional, Passionate, Fanciful

????-?????? ???, 2011
5
CONSTABLE, THE HAY WAIN, 1821
  • INTRODUCTION TO WESTERN CIVILIZATION (AN
    INTERPRETATION)

6
ROMANTICISM IN CHINESE/TAIWANESE LITERATURE
  • ??
  • ???
  • ?????????

7
THE VICTORIAN IN TAIWAN
  • ????????????? ???????
  • (2011/12/08 1157 (source NOWnews)
  • Google -- ?????????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ????????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ?????

8
IN POPULAR CULTURE
  • Victorian House
  • Victorian Gothic
  • (e.g. Jane Eyre and ????)

9
OUR VICTORIAN SOCIETY
  • Social Earnestness (Pretentiousness) vs. Doubts
  • Rich vs. Poor
  • Sex as a Taboo and Discursive/Media Focus

10
ANOTHER THING IN COMMON?
  • QUEST AND ANTI-QUEST

11
HISTORY
  • The Romantic Age 17981832
  • -- Industrial Revolution 1789 French Revolution
  • -- 1798 the publication of Wordsworth
    Coleridges Lyrical Ballads
  • -- Byrons death (1824)
  • -- to Sir Walter Scotts death (1832) the
    passage of the first Reform Bill in the
    parliament.
  • The Victorian Age 1832 ( 1838-1870)-1901
  • The early period (1832-1848) a time of social
    unrest
  • The middle period (1848-1870) a period of
    economic prosperity religious controversy
  • The last period (1870-1901) a period of decay
    of Victorian values.

Workers Strike 1811s - 1818
The Romantics (2005) The Victorians (2009)
--Opening
12
1. MODERNITY
  • (from medievalism, feudalism and agriculturalism
    to)
  • A Society dominated by
  • Industrialism Science
  • Capitalism
  • Secularization
  • Rationalization
  • Building of Nation-State
  • Phases
  • 16th-18th centuries early modernity
  • 19th century classical modernity
  • 1901-1950s late modernity

13
QUEST AND ANTI-QUEST
  • Romantic Quest
  • Victorian Anti-Quest
  • for love, self-identity, poetic beauty, natural
    supernaturalism, and individual freedom/heroism
  • frustration and transformation of quest
  • Done through some extreme measures or vicariously

Instead of the holy grail, the objective is
usually to reach beyond human limits.
14
WOMENS POSITIONS AS OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF QUEST
  • Jane Eyre
  • Alice in Wonderland
  • A girls quest?
  • Social critique (e.g. the religious hypocrisy of
    charity institutions) and a womans quest?

15
ROMANTICISM
  • QUEST FOR INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND POETIC IDEALS

16
NEOCLASSICISM (MS. WEN-LING SU)
  • The Grand Manner
  • (Joshua Reynolds)
  • Reason // clarity // order // restraint
  • Goodness // virtue // truth
  • Moral
  • Simple // austere // monumental
  • Balanced // symmetric // geometric

17
THE ROMANTICS (1) LIBERTY (BBC)
  • 1902 Joshua Reynold vs. William Blake
  • London
  • Blake ? the other radicals (e.g. Brissot)
  • 3442 Wordsworth Annette and their child The
    Great Terror (killings of the supporters of the
    King)
  • 4330 Wordsworth, a wanderer in Nature
  • 4730 Wordsworth and Coleridges friendship and
    cooperation.
  • 5100 The Lyrical Ballads (poetry of and for
    individuals)

18
THE ROMANTICS (2) NATURE (BBC)
  • Opening
  • 130 Age of industrialization Mans relation
    with Nature in an increasingly mechanized world
  • 340 vision of Blake as a child Childs
    imagination
  • vs. Chimney Sweeper

19
THE ROMANTICS--FEATURES
  • Against Industrialism/Materialism
  • Idealistic,
  • Revolutionary, Iconoclastic,
  • first generation Sympathetic with Peasants
  • Quest for
  • -- poetic imagination
  • -- being one with Nature or
  • -- some supernatural vision (the sublime).

20
ROMANTICISM
  • (1) Subjectivism poetry as the spontaneous
    overflow of powerful feelings which expresses
    the poets mind. Emphasis on imagination.
  • (2) Spontaneity This emphasis on spontaneity is
    opposed to the rules and regulations imposed
    on the poets by neo-classic writers
  • (3) Singularity love for the remote, the
    unusual, the strange, the supernatural, the
    mysterious, the splendid, the picturesque, the
    illogical. (source teaching notes)
  • (4) Nature As a source of spiritual
    replenishment and guidance.

21
WILLIAM BLAKE
22
William Blake
  • an English writer, poet, and illustrator of the
    Romantic period
  • Had visions of angels as a child
  • 1787 ? the technique of "illuminated writing," or
    relief-etching.
  • Songs of Innocence (1789)
  • 1797 Songs of Innocence and of Experience ("the
    two Contrary States of the Human Soul." )
  • Image source http//members.aol.com/lshauser2/wmb
    lake.html

23
Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794)
  • "Innocence" -- the state of the unfallen man
  • "Experience" -- man's state after the Fall.
  • e.g. the two "Chimney Sweepers," the two "Nurse's
    Songs,
  • the two "Holy Thursdays"
  • "Infant Joy" vs. "Infant Sorrow,"
  • "The Divine Image" vs. "A Divine Image."The
    Lamb" vs. "The Tyger"

24
"Infant Joy" (1789)
  1. Who are the speakers of this poem? What do they
    talk about? Can a baby be talking to its mother?
  2. What are the functions of repetition in this
    poem?

25
"Infant Joy" (1789)
  • "I have no name,
  • I am but two days old."
  • What shall I call thee?
  • "I happy am,
  • Joy is my name."
  • Sweet joy befall thee!
  •  
  • Pretty joy!
  • Sweet joy, but two days old.
  • Sweet joy I call thee
  • Thou dost smile,
  • I sing the while--
  • Sweet joy befall thee.

26
"Infant Joy" (1789)
  • the speakersthe mother and her baby (imagined to
    be speaking)
  • About its namelessness, and how it is named after
    its joy.
  • Repetition
  • a. How the mother is attentive and caring
  • b. The interchange (beyond words) between the
    baby and the mother.

27
Infant Sorrow
  • 1. Who is the speaker, considering his/her
    usage of the words 'groaning,' 'weeping' and
    'fiend.'  What is his tone like?
  • 2. Again, pay attention to the sound effects.
    What do we make of the end rhymes?
  • 3. Why does the infant 'sulk' but not 'suck' upon
    the mother's breast?  Are there any words with
    the same effects?
  • 4. Main idea Is this infant seeking freedom, or
    just food, in all its struggling and striving and
    sulking?

28
Infant Sorrow
  • My mother groaned, my father wept Into the
    dangerous world I leapt, Helpless, naked, piping
    loud, Like a fiend hid in a cloud. Struggling in
    my father's hands, Striving against my swaddling
    bands, Bound and weary, I thought best To sulk
    upon my mother's breast.

29
Infant Sorrow
  • 1. The speaker an adult, who knows the parents
    hardship and what they think about a kid.
  • 2. the end rhymes shows the contraries of the
    fathers weeping and the infants leaping, the
    latters loudness and its being in a cloud
    struggling in the first two lines vs. sulking
    in the third and fourth.
  • 3. 'sulk-- 'suck best breast
  • 4. Main idea 1) Poverty dooms the family 2)
    this infant seeks freedom against the constraints
    imposed on it.

30
INFANT JOY INFANT SORROW
31
INFANT JOY INFANT SORROW
  • 1. Please try to compare the two poems both in
    terms of their line and sound patterns. 
  • 2. Is an infant joyful by birth? Why is the
    infant in Infant Sorrow not 'sorrowful'?
  • 3. Are there other ways of reading them? Can
    there be causes for sorrow in "Infant Joy" and
    spaces for joy in "Infant Sorrow"?

32
TYGER AND SICK ROSE
33
THE SICK ROSE
  • O Rose, thou art sick!
  • The invisible worm
  • That flies in the night,
  • In the howling storm,
  • Has found out thy bed
  • Of crimson joy,
  • And his dark secret love
  • Does thy life destroy.

34
TYGER
  • Tyger! Tyger! burning bright,
  • In the forests of the night,
  • What immortal hand or eye
  • Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
  • In what distant deeps or skies
  • Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
  • On what wings dare he aspire?
  • What the hand dare sieze the fire?
  • And what shoulder, what art,
  • Could twist the sinews of thy heart?

35
TYGER (2)
  • What the hammer? what the chain?
  • In what furnace was thy brain?
  • What the anvil? what dread grasp
  • Dare its deadly terrors clasp?
  • When the stars threw down their spears,
  • And water'd heaven with their tears,
  • Did he smile his work to see?
  • Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
  • Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
  • In the forests of the night,
  • What immortal hand or eye
  • Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

36
NEXT WEEK
  • Review/Quiz Blakes Poems
  • Your discussion Wordsworths Short Poems
  • My Role Tinturn Abbey and Immortality Ode

37
REF (1) THE ROMANTICS (1) LIBERTY (BBC)
  • Opening
  • 1902 Joshua Reynold vs. William Blake
  • London
  • Blake ? the other radicals (e.g. Brissot)
  • 3442 Wordsworth Annette and their child The
    Great Terror (killings of the supporters of the
    King)
  • 4330 Wordsworth, a wanderer in Nature
  • 4730 Wordsworth and Coleridges friendship and
    cooperation.
  • 5100 The Lyrical Ballads (poetry of and for
    individuals)
  • 5400 --The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

38
REF (2) THE ROMANTICS (2) NATURE (BBC)
  • Opening
  • 130 Age of industrialization Mans relation
    with Nature in an increasingly mechanized world
  • 340 vision of Blake as a child Childs
    imagination
  • vs. Chimney Sweeper
  • 5100 -- Mary Shelley and Frankenstein
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