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The Jews of Europe

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The Jews of Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Jews of Europe


1
The Jews of Europe
2
The Jews of Europe
  • What can we say about the big picture of
    medieval Judaism?
  • How can we compare and contrast it with
    Christianity and Islam?

3
Medieval Judaism
  • Where Did They Go?
  • Sadducees
  • Essenes
  • Messianic Jews
  • Pharisees

4
Medieval Judaism
  • The Jewish Diaspora
  • Dispersion after Jewish War, Bar Kochba Revolt
  • Ashkenazim
  • Yiddish
  • Sephardim

5
Medieval Judaism
  • The Tanakh
  • Contents
  • Torah (Law)
  • Neviim (Prophets)
  • Ketuvim (Writings)
  • Written in Hebrew, Aramaic

6
Medieval Judaism
  • Rabbinic Literature
  • The Mishnah
  • Traditions compiled ca. AD 200
  • Clarifies, systematizes Torah
  • The Talmud
  • Elaboration of, commentary on Mishnah
  • Contains Oral Torah
  • Foundational for religious study

The Talmud
7
Medieval Judaism
  • The Synagogue
  • Jewish meeting place
  • Services of readings, prayer
  • No distinct architectural type
  • Few medieval synagogues extant

Old-New Synagogue, Prague (ca. 1270)
8
Medieval Judaism
  • Holy Days and Times
  • Shabbat
  • Biblical holidays
  • Passover
  • Shavuot
  • Rosh ha-Shannah
  • Yom Kippur
  • Sukkot
  • Rabbinical holidays
  • Purim
  • Hanukkah

9
Medieval Judaism
  • Rashi (ca. 1040-1105)
  • Based in Troyes, France
  • Likely the rabbi there, founded yeshiva (1070)
  • Wrote biblical, talmudic commentaries
  • Clear, concise
  • Erudition
  • Honest scholar
  • Influential for Jews and Christians!

10
Medieval Judaism
  • Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
  • From Cordoba ? Cairo
  • Physician, Jewish philosopher
  • Guide of the Perplexed (1185-1190)
  • Covers spectrum of philosophical problems
  • Concluded religion and philosophy are harmonious

11
Medieval Judaism
  • Kabbalah
  • Jewish mystical tradition
  • Goals mystical awareness, devoutness
  • Themes
  • Need to reinterpret creation account
  • Devotion to Scriptures
  • Salvation of humanity, through Davidic Messiah
  • Book of Splendor (ca. 1290)

Tree of Life
12
Medieval Judaism
  • Judah the Hasid (ca. 1149-1217)
  • Based in Regensburg
  • Legends, miracles!
  • Valued devotion, piety over study
  • Practiced, taught humility

13
Medieval Judaism
  • Questions?

14
Jews and Christians
  • Trends in Jewish-Christian Relations in Europe
  • Overall cordial relations during Early Middle
    Ages
  • Anti-Jewish legislation often ignored, not
    implemented
  • Jews integrated in every aspect of European life
  • Jews served in governments, armies owned land,
    slaves
  • Relations deteriorated starting during the
    Crusades
  • Went from toleration to marginalization,
    persecution
  • Papacy called for toleration, but with
    restrictions and limitations

15
Jews and Christians
  • The Code of Justinian
  • Jews to be 2nd-class citizens
  • Negative view of Judaism
  • Judaism no longer religio licita
  • Attempted to forbid study of Talmud

16
Jews and Christians
  • Pope Gregory the Great and the Jews
  • Theologically anti-Semitic
  • Hoped Jews would convert
  • Benign practical Jewish policy
  • Guaranteed religious toleration
  • Protected Jews rights

17
Jews and Christians
  • The Kingdom of the Franks
  • Judaism the only non-Christian religion permitted
  • Jewish law recognized within Frankish law
  • Jews welcomed at court, esteemed for trading
    connections
  • Great rabbinic schools established

Abul Abazs arrival in Aachen
18
Jews and Christians
  • Questions?

19
Jews and Christians
  • Accusations against Jews
  • Blood libel
  • Ritual murder
  • Host desecration
  • Well poisoning

Murder of Simon of Trent (1475)
20
Jews and Christians
21
Jews and Christians
  • The Jews and Money Lending
  • Rising mercantile class ? Jews driven out of
    commercial trade
  • Forced into money lending, practiced usury ?
    resented
  • Moneylending Jews likened to Judas

22
Jews and Christians
Judensau woodcut (ca. 1475)
23
Jews and Christians
  • The Fate of the Talmud
  • To Christians, impious and blasphemous
  • Censored
  • Subject of trial in France (1240)
  • Periodic waves of seizures, burnings

24
Jews and Christians
  • Violence against Jews
  • The York Massacre (1190)
  • Mob attacked Jewish population
  • Jews committed mass suicide in York Castle,
    others killed
  • Debt documents destroyed
  • Strasbourg Massacre (1349)
  • Believed well poisoning caused Black Death
  • 900 Jews burned, in their cemetery

Christian mob before York Castle (1190)
25
Jews and Christians
  • Expulsions of Jews
  • Expelled from Constantinople (10th cent.) ?
    participation in silk trade curtailed
  • Expelled from England (1290) ? homes, capital
    confiscated
  • Expelled from France (1306) after several ritual
    murder, host desecration trials

26
Jews and Christians
  • Questions?

27
The Jews of Europe
  • What can we say about the big picture of
    medieval Judaism?
  • How can we compare and contrast it with
    Christianity and Islam?
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