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Chemistry Pre-Quiz!

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Miramar High School Last modified by: wrago Created Date: 10/10/2005 1:18:42 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemistry Pre-Quiz!


1
Chemistry Pre-Quiz!
2
Question 1
  • Biochemistry is the study of ____________.

3
Question 2
  • An atom consists of protons, neutrons, and
    ____________.

4
Question 3
  • The molecular formula for water is ____________.

5
Question 4
  • Which is the smallest?
  • Organism
  • Cell
  • Atom
  • Compound

6
Question 5
  • Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide.
  • True or False?

7
Chapter 2
  • The Chemistry of Life

8
Why do biologists need to study chemistry?
  • All life forms are MATTER and all matter is made
    up of chemical parts.
  • Matter anything that has a MASS and VOLUME that
    can be measured.
  • Examples of Matter (living and nonliving)
  • All matter has both physical and chemical
    properties.

9
Physical Properties
  • Can be observed and measured without permanently
    changing the identity of the matter
  • Observed by the senses - taste, smell, shape,
    color, texture, melting and boiling points.

10
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical properties can change a substance into a
    new substance through a chemical reaction.
  • New substance is created and permanently altered!
  • Rusting (oxidation) and combustion (flammability)
  • Examples of chemical reactions

11
Levels of Organization (Largest Smallest)
  • Organism Organ Systems
  • Organs Tissues Cells
  • Cell Organelles
  • Molecule/Compounds Atoms

12
Ch. 2- Section 1
13
ATOMS
  • Smallest, indivisible unit of matter.
  • Extremely small!
  • (100 MILLION atoms lined up end to end would
    only equal 1 cm in length!)
  • However, an atom is made up of smaller parts
    called SUBATOMIC PARTICLES.

14
ATOMS (continued)
  • Center of Atom Nucleus
  • Subatomic Particles Protons, Neutrons,
    Electrons
  • Protons - positively charged particle (1)
  • Neutrons- particle with NO CHARGE neutral (0)
  • Electrons- Negatively charged particle (-1)

15
ATOMS (continued)
  • Nucleus contains protons AND neutrons.
  • Electrons circle around the nucleus in electron
    clouds or orbitals or valence shells.

16
ATOMS (continued)
  • Every atom has an ATOMIC NUMBER. The atomic
    number tells you a lot of information.
  • This number tells you the type of atom you have.
    (Element name)
  • This number ALWAYS tells you the of Protons in
    the atom.
  • The atomic is usually the number of neutrons
    and electrons, also. (not always!)
  • Example Atomic Number of 6
    6 Protons, 6 Neutrons in the
    nucleus of the atom.
  • Use Periodic Table of Elements to look up element
    name for atomic number 6 Carbon

17
Elements
  • Every element consists of only 1 type of atom.
  • Every element has a DIFFERENT atomic number and
    its own symbol on the Periodic Table (PT).
  • 109 elements on the PT, 90 are found in nature,
    19 were formed in a laboratory by scientists.

18
Using the Periodic Table
  • Below the Symbol (C) youll find the elements
    atomic mass.
  • Atomic Mass Sum of protons neutrons

19
Drawing Atomic Structures
  • Look up element on the Periodic Table.
  • Write down Atomic Number.
  • Draw Nucleus with 3 orbitals surrounding it.
  • Inside nucleus, write of protons (p).
  • Inside nucleus, write of neutrons (n0).
  • Fill in orbitals with correct number of
    electrons.
  • First orbital gets only 2 electrons.
  • Additional electrons, fill 2nd orbital.
  • (up to 8 e-)
  • More electrons will go into 3rd orbital.
  • (up to 8 e-).

20
Drawing Atomic Structures
  • Example CARBON

6 p 6 n0
21
PRACTICE! Drawing Atomic Structures
  • Draw the following elemental atoms.
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen


22
Chemical Elements Compounds
  • Remember!
  • The atomic number of an element NEVER changes! IT
    IS ALWAYS THE OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS!
  • However, the number of NEUTRONS can vary from one
    atom of that element to the next.


23
Isotopes
  • Examples 13C 14C
  • All are Carbon atoms, just with different atomic
    MASSES! (same atomic )
  • Atoms of the same element, same number of
    protons, but different of neutrons are called
    isotopes.


24
Radioactive Isotopes
  • The nuclei of some atoms are unstable and will
    from time to time break down, releasing matter
    and energy that we call radiation.
  • Atoms that emit (give off) radiation are said to
    be RADIOACTIVE.
  • Radioactive Isotopes have many uses for living
    organisms, such as diagnosing and treating
    diseases, sterilize food, and measuring the ages
    of things, like trees or rocks.


25
Radioactive Isotopes (continued)
  • Examples
  • Iodine - 131 (131I) injected into humans to
    study the function of the thyroid gland. Can be
    seen through special equipment that picks up on
    the radiation energy given off by this isotope as
    it travels through the body.
  • Carbon-14 (14C) used to treat brain tumors and
    track the ages of trees and fossils.


26
(No Transcript)
27
Chemical Bonding
  • When individual atoms interact, they form
    chemical bonds.
  • When chemical bonds form between 2 or more atoms,
    your result is a chemical compound.
  • However, atoms combine in a certain way and
    follow a specific set of rules!
  • The rules affect the electrons in the outermost
    orbital, or VALENCE ELECTRONS.


28
VALENCE ELECTRONS
  • When the outermost orbital is full with the
    maximum number of electrons, the atom is very
    stable (happy!). These atoms are unreactive and
    do not combine with other atoms to form
    compounds.
  • When the outermost orbital is NOT full, it will
    try and fill its orbital by combining with other
    atoms. To become stable, an atom will either
    GAIN, LOSE, or SHARE electrons. An atom will
    bond with another atom if the bond gives both
    atoms complete valence energy levels.


29
Two major types of bonds that can form
compounds
  • IONIC BONDS
  • COVALENT BONDS

30
IONIC BONDS
  • DEFINITION A bond that completely transfers
    electrons from one atom to another.
  • Electrons are completely given up or taken in
    order for atoms to have a completely full
    outermost orbital. Remember- thats when atoms
    are most happy and stable!

31
IONIC BONDS (cont.)
11 p 11 n0
17 p 17 n0
Na
Cl
32
IONIC BONDS (cont.)
Happy!
Happy!
NaCl
11 p 11 n0
17 p 17 n0

11 p 10 e- 1
Cl-1
17 p 18 e- 1-
Na1
33
Ionic Bonds (cont.)
  • When electrons are gained or lost, the elements
    take on a charge. The charge will be either
    positive or negative based on gaining or losing
    electrons. These charged elements are called
    IONS.
  • http//www.visionlearning.com/library/flash_viewer
    .php?oid1349mid55
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFtw7a5ccubsfeature
    related

34
COVALENT BONDS
  • DEFINITION A bond that shares electrons from
    one atom to another.
  • Electrons are NOT completely given up or taken,
    BUT ARE SHARED. This allows for atoms to have a
    completely full outermost orbital.

35
COVALENT BONDS
  • Example H2O

36
More covalent bonds!
Ionic covalent bonding video
37
Chapter 2 Properties of Water
38
Properties of Water
  • Polar covalent bonds- e- are shared, however,
    electrons are pulled more towards the oxygen, due
    to the more protons ( charges)
    in the nucleus.
  • Water is POLAR due to this PULL, or uneven
    distribution of electrons.

39
Hydrogen bonds (weak bonds)
  • Cohesion- attraction between molecules of the
    SAME substance
  • (Ex. Water beads up due to the attraction
    between similar water molecules- Surface
    tension on penny)
  • Adhesion- attraction between molecules of the
    DIFFERENT substances
    (Ex. Adhesives like glue, tape, etc.)

40
Acids/ Bases/ pH Scale
  • Water can break apart into ions
  • H2O H OH-
  • Water Hydrogen Hydroxide
  • Ion Ion
  • The pH scale measures the concentration of H
    ions in a solution.

41
Acids/Bases
  • pH scale ranges from 0-14.
  • Any reading BELOW 7 on the pH scale is an ACID.
    (HIGH concentration of H ions)
  • Any reading ABOVE 7 on the pH scale is an BASE.
    (LOW concentration of H ions)

42
  • Acids (Acidic solutions) lower the pH, the
    STRONGER the acid.
  • Bases (ALKALINE solutions) higher the pH, the
    STRONGER the base.

43
Buffers
  • Any pH level near 7, is consider NEUTRAL.
  • Buffers can be added to strong acids/bases to
    prevent strong changes in the pH levels.
  • Very important for maintaining blood pH in
    humans (HOMEOSTASIS)

44
Ch. 3 Organic Macromolecules
45
Organic macromolecules
  • CARBON ORGANIC
  • MACROMOLECULES BIG MOLECULES
  • Monomers (one piece) bond together to form
    polymers (many pieces)
  • 4 major polymers, or MACROMOLECULES, in living
    things.
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

46
Carbohydrates
  • Main source of IMMEDIATE ENERGY in living things.
  • MONOMERS (smaller pieces) SUGARS (Saccharides)
  • Found in starches such at potatoes, pastas, rice
    etc.

47
Proteins
  • Control and regulate cell processes, fight
    disease, transport substances for cells.
  • MONOMERS (smaller pieces) AMINO ACIDS
  • Make up muscles of animals

48
Lipids
  • Used for ENERGY STORAGE slower release of energy
    than carbs make up cell membranes chemical
    messengers
  • MONOMERS (smaller pieces) Glycerol and 3 fatty
    acid chains
  • Found in oils, tree nuts, waxes

49
Nucleic Acids
  • Store and transmit genetic information
  • MONOMERS (smaller pieces) NUCLEOTIDES
  • Found in DNA and RNA within all cells
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