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Unit 14 The Industrial Revolution

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Title: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism Author: Internal User Last modified by: bburdock Created Date: 3/24/2008 4:18:34 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 14 The Industrial Revolution


1
Unit 14 The Industrial Revolution
2
The Three Economic Questions
  • Economics was created to describe how people meet
    their needs
  • 3 basic questions that must be answered
  • What will be produced?
  • How will it be produced?
  • Who gets what is produced?

3
Free Enterprise System
  • Free Enterprise systempeople are free to choose
    what to produce and what to consume
  • Producers make what they want
  • Consumers buy what they need
  • Price is determined by supply and demand

4
Adam Smith Prophet of Free Enterprise
  • Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations
  • explained how free enterprise works
  • Economy guided by Invisible Hand theory

5
Pre-Conditions for Industrial Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution starts in Britain
  • Geography (Harbors and waterways), led to ease in
    communication and transportation
  • Abundant resources (coal, iron, running water,
    agriculture)
  • Global colonial empire (trade)
  • Strong middle class created political stability
  • Scientific Advances give inventors technical
    skills to build new machines

6
Industrial Revolution
  • New inventions in textile manufacturing triggered
    the Industrial Revolution
  • The Spinning Jenny allowed many threads to be
    spun at a time, increases production of cotton
    and cloth

7
Factory System
  • James Watts improved steam engine drove textile
    machines
  • Goods were made in factory instead of at home
  • People now make goods using machines instead of
    by hand
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vG5djJXIC9oE

8
Changes in transportation technology
  • The power of the steam engine was applied to
    transportation technology
  • Steamboats and railroads made travel cheaper,
    safer and faster

9
Changes in transportation technology
  • Steamboats and railroads made travel cheaper,
    safer and faster

10
Changes in European Society
  • The Industrial Revolution led to economic,
    social, and political changes.
  • Mass-produced goods became more available and
    cheaper.

11
Characteristics of 19th century Capitalism
  • Role of the Entrepreneurowns factories and
    organizes, manages business to make a profit
  • Role of the Workerprovide labor for wages
  • Role of Govtlaissez-faire, govt didnt interfere
    in relations between workers and business owners

12
Family Life in the Industrial Revolution
  • Families moved from the country to towns and
    cities

13
Reform Movements
  • As workers conditions worsened Queen Victoria
    (Britain) calls for social reform
  • Reform Bill of 1832
  • Middle Class wanted greater representation in
    Parliament and more voting rights
  • Working class wanted
  • Wanted a 10 hour workday
  • Ban on child labor

14
Marx and the Birth of Communism
  • Critics of the Industrial Revolution included
    Karl Marx
  • Communists believed
  • Capitalists oppressed workers
  • one day workers would overthrow capitalist
    factory-owners in a violent revolution
  • workers would establish classless society
    abolish private property

15
Socialism
  • Early socialists also criticized laissez-faire
    capitalism
  • believing workers should be given greater rights
    and opportunities
  • governments should own businesses
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vydZ9jJ4X8I4featur
    echannel

16
2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Beginnings of New Industries (Steel, Chemicals,
    Electricity, Petroleum)
  • New Inventions and Scientific Discoveries in
    response to industries
  • --Thomas Edison (light bulb, phonograph, motion
    pictures)
  • --Marie Curie (experiments with radioactivity,
    discovery of radium)
  • --Albert Einstein (theory of relativity)
  • --Louis Pasteur diseases caused by germs,
    developed vaccines, and pasteurization (using
    heat to kill germs)

17
Unification of Italy and Germany
  • The Industrial Revolution encouraged a rising
    middle class in Italy and Germany, who demanded
    unification
  • Both countries were unified by wars

18
Impact of Industrial Revolutionon Europe
Economic Change Social Change Political Change

19
Study Resources
  • Industrial Revolution--http//www.youtube.com/watc
    h?vzhL5DCizj5c
  • Capitalism and Socialism--http//www.youtube.com/w
    atch?vB3u4EFTwprM

20
Unit 14 Imperialism Europe reaches out
21
European Imperialism
  • Imperialismpolitical or economic control of one
    area or country by another
  • Motives for European Imperialism
  • European countries want colonies and power
  • Need for resources and new markets to sell
    manufactured goods
  • Duty to spread superior culture and civilization
    to Africa and Asia

22
European Imperialism
  • Old Imperialismuse of formal (direct) rule
  • --suppressed cultures, took resources, and used
    locals for labor
  • IndiaRuled by Britain
  • Southeast AsiaFrench, Dutch, and Spanish
    establish colonies there

23
The British RAJ (Reign) in India
  • In 18th century Britain begins rule of India
  • --brought language, industry (railroad), and
    culture (schools, language) to India, many
    Indians upset with change of culture
  • Sepoy Mutiny (1857)British crush the revolt and
    take control of India
  • --becomes official British possession, Queen
    Victoria is Empress of India

24
Impact of British Rule in India
25
The New Imperialism
  • Caused by use of new technology
  • --military (rifles)
  • --medicines (quinine used against malaria)
  • --transportation (steamboats and railroads)
  • --Communication (telegraph and telephone)

26
Reasons for renewed interest in Imperialism
  • European technology made it possible to travel to
    all parts of Africa, Asia, and Pacific
  • Needed new raw materials and new markets
  • Wanted colonies to preserve the balance of power
  • Social Darwinism (society is better if culture
    more successful)
  • Spread Christianity

27
Scramble for Africa
  • Done to preserve balance of power
  • Britain takes Egypt to keep control of the Suez
    Canal
  • Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
  • King Leopold II (Belgian Congo)

28
Legacy of Imperialism in Africa
29
Informal (Indirect) Imperialism
  • European powers dominate an areas economy, but
    do not directly take over the govt

30
The European Powers and China
  • ChinaOpium War
  • Forced by Europeans to grant special trading
    privileges and other economic benefits
  • Establishment of spheres of influence by European
    powers

31
Latin America
  • Latin AmericaBritain and US dominated the
    economy of this area
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