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Drifting Toward Disunion


Chapter 19 Drifting Toward Disunion – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drifting Toward Disunion

Chapter 19
  • Drifting Toward Disunion

  • When reading about the slave revolts, think about
    how they are altering the mindset of the South,
    and as we continue in Chapter 19, think about why
    John Brown scares them so much after you review
    the slave revolts

  • Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and
    later in the southern U.S.
  • 250 insurrections have been documented between
    1780 and 1864.
  • 91 African-Americans were convicted of
    insurrection in Virginia alone.
  • First revolt in what became the United States
    took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near
    the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.

Stono County Rebellion
  • September 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met
    near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles
    southwest of Charleston. They took guns and
    powder from a store and killed the two
    storekeepers they found there.
  • "With cries of 'Liberty' and beating of drums,"
    "the rebels raised a standard and headed south
    toward Spanish St. Augustine . Burned houses, and
    killed white opponents.
  • Largest slave uprising in the 13 colonies prior
    to the American Revolution.
  • Slaveowners caught up with the band of 60 to 100
    slaves. 20 white Carolinians and 40 black
    Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was

  • Slaves resorted to revolts in the 13 colonies and
    later in the southern U.S.
  • Gabriel Prosser
  • Denmark Vessey
  • Nat Turner

Gabriel Prosser, (1776-1800), American leader of
an aborted slave uprising, whose intention was to
create a free black state in Virginia. Born near
Richmond, he was the son of an African mother who
instilled in him the love of freedom. Inspired
perhaps by the success of the black
revolutionaries of Haiti, he plotted with other
slaves, notably Jack Bowler, in the spring of
1800 to seize the arsenal at Richmond and kill
whites. On August 30, 1800, as many as 1000 armed
slaves gathered outside Richmond ready for
action. A torrential downpour and thunderstorm,
however, washed away a bridge vital to the
insurrectionists' march at the same time
Governor James Monroe, the future president, was
informed of the plot and dispatched the state
militia against them. Prosser and some 35 of his
young comrades were captured and hanged.
The leader of an American slave revolt in
Charleston, S.C., Denmark Vesey, b. Africa, 1767,
d. July 2, 1822, had been owned by a slave-ship
captain before he purchased his freedom (1800)
with 600 won in a street lottery. As a freedman
in Charleston, he worked at carpentry, became a
leader of his church, and read antislavery
literature. Determined to strike a blow against
the institution that had victimized him, he
devised an intricate conspiracy for an uprising
in Charleston and vicinity during the summer of
1822. Informers divulged the plot, however, and
35 blacks, including Vesey, were executed.
Nat Turner Rebellion Nat Turner, a slave owned
by Joseph Travis of Southampton, Virginia,
believed that he had been chosen by God to lead a
slave rebellion. On 21st August, 1831, Turner and
seven fellow slaves, murdered Travis and his
family. Over the next two days and nights,
Turner's band killed around 60 white people in
Virginia. Turner had hoped that this action would
cause a massive slave uprising but only 75 joined
his rebellion. Over 3,000 members of the state
militia were sent to deal with Turner's gang, and
they were soon defeated. In retaliation, more
than a hundred innocent slaves were killed.
Turner went into hiding but was captured six
weeks later. Nat Turner was executed on 11th
November, 1831.
Arrest of Nat Turner
Tree Nat Turner was hung on
Nat Turner Rebellion
Slave Revolts
  • Besides slave revolts, slaves resorted to other
    ways to revolt..
  • Wouldnt work hard.
  • Would sabotage equipment or break tools.
  • Sometimes poisoned their masters food.
  • Tried to escape

Books Inflame Passions
  • Uncle Toms Cabin The 1852 novel by Harriet
    Beecher Stowe dramatized the slave conditions
  • Based on limited factual observation but fired by
    anger over the new Fugitive Slave Law, Stowes
    book was melodramatic and filled with stereotypes
  • It was a success both as a book and as a stage
  • It heightened emotional tension in the North and
    the South
  • The Impending Crisis of the South By Hinton
    Helper of North Carolina, published in 1857
  • It attempted to prove that non-slave-holding poor
    whites were hurt most by slavery
  • Published in the North, it stirred emotions in
    both sections

Bleeding Kansas
Border Ruffians(pro-slavery Missourians)
Bleeding Kansas
  • Northern free-soilers and abolitionists and
    pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri
    flooded into Kansas
  • In a disputed election, pro-slavery forces won
    control of the territorial legislature, which
    enacted a severe slave code.
  • Free-soilers, in a clear majority, drew up a
    rival Topeka Constitution, which provided for
    ending slavery
  • Supporters of the rival governments fought
    pitched battles
  • Proslavery raiders burn part of a free-soil town,
  • Abolitionist John Brown retaliates by leading a
    vicious attack on a settlement at Pottawatomie

The Lecompton Constitution
  • Created by proslavery forces- said people could
    vote for the Constitution with slavery or with no
    slavery, not on the whole thing
  • If they vote against slavery, a provision would
    protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas.
  • Proslavery advocates approve the Constitution in
    1857 when the free-soilers boycott the polls
  • New president James Buchanan supports the L.C.,
    but Stephen Douglas throws away any support he
    has in the South and pushes for true popular
  • Compromise is entire Lecompton Constitution is
    put to a vote, and the free-soil voters shoot it
  • Kansas stays a territory until 1861.

Violence in the Senate
  • Senator Charles Sumner (Massachusetts) in 1856
    delivered a fiery anti-slavery speech, The Crime
    Against Kansas, including condemnation of Senator
    Andrew Butler (South Carolina).
  • Butlers cousin, Congressman Preston (Bully)
    Brooks, beats Sumner with a cane at his Senate
  • House of Representatives doesnt get enough votes
    to expel Brooks, but he resigns and then gets
    overwhelmingly reelected
  • Passions in both the North and South are getting
    VERY dangerous

The Crime Against Kansas
Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA)
Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
1856 Presidential Election
v James Buchanan John C. Frémont
Millard Fillmore Democrat
Republican Whig
1856 Presidential Election
  • American Party (Know Nothings) a nativist third
    party that relied upon xenophobia (fear of
    foreigners) and on the temperance movement
  • In 1856 former president Millard Fillmore, the
    Know-Nothing candidate, won over 21 of the
    popular vote and Marylands 8 electoral votes
  • The American Party was absorbed by the
    Republicans after 1856
  • Republican Party Formed as a coalition in 1854
  • At Ripon, Wisconsin and Jackson, Michigan,
    Independent Democrats, Free Soilers, and
    Conscience Whigs untied in opposition to the
    Kansas Nebraska bill
  • This third party stressed free labor and opposed
    the extension of slavery into the territories
    (Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men)
  • In Illinois, Abraham Lincoln returned to politics
    as a Whig but cooperated with Republicans
  • John C. Fremont, a military hero, was the first
    Republican presidential candidate in 1856
  • To maintain unity, the Democrats nominated James
    Buchanan, who won the 1856 election partly by
    sweeping the South

Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • The Supreme Court With a pro-South majority, it
    became a bulwark for the defense of slavery
  • Dred Scott This test case was promoted by
    anti-slavery groups
  • Scotts owner, an army surgeon, had taken him to
    posts in a free state in in free territory
  • His suit for freedom passed though the Missouri
    (slave state) courts
  • Since his new owner lived in New York, the case
    could be appealed to the federal courts
  • The U.S. Supreme Court heard the case in 1856 but
    delayed decision because of the presidential
    election (Buchanan was aware of the outcome
    suspicions of a slave power conspiracy were

Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • Decision Chief Justice Taneys 1857 decision
    spoke for a 6-3 majority (though others wrote
    opinions). Two Northern Republicans wrote strong
  • Taney wrote
  • Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in
    court. (Taneys racism was revealed when he
    referred to Negroes as an inferior order)
  • Scotts residence in a free state and territory
    had not made him free since he returned to
  • Congress had no right to prohibit slavery in a
  • The Fifth Amendment says Congress cannot deprive
    people of their property without due process of
  • This voided an act of Congress (Missouri
    Compromise) for only the second time

Panic of 1857
  • California gold inflates currency
  • Overproduction of grain because of Crimean War
  • Overspeculation in land and railroads
  • The Northeast was hardest hit by the resultant
    two-year depression (further intensifying
  • South does fairly well due to high cotton prices
  • Push by the North for a homestead act (give
    settlers 160 acres of land for free if willing to
    risk their own life and health to develop it
    (Passes Congress at 25 cents per acre of land in
    1860 Buchanan vetoes)
  • Eastern businessmen fear it will drain away their
    workforce, and Southerners oppose because the
    land will fill up with free-soilers
  • Panic also coincides with decreased tariff rate
    in Tariff of 1857.
  • Eastern workers and Western farmers were
    attracted to the new Republican party
  • Two economic issues for Republicans in 1860
    protection for the unprotected and farms for the

The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates,
Stephen Douglas
Freeport Doctrine
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • In Illinois Abraham Lincoln and incumbent Senator
    Stephen Douglas campaigned for the Senate with a
    series of debates in 1858
  • Lincoln tried to focus on the Dred Scott
    decisions impact on popular sovereignty
  • In the Freeport Doctrine, Douglas responded that
    anti-slavery territories could refuse to enact
    slave codes, no matter what the Supreme Court
  • Douglas wins the Senate seat, but at a great
    cost Opposes Lecompton, defies the Supreme Court
    at Freeportcauses the southern Democrats to
    split the party rather than support him.
  • Lincoln becomes an overnight celebrity, even
    being mentioned as a possible Republican nominee
    for president in 1860

Harpers Ferry
  • John Brown performed the most incendiary deed in
  • With a small following he occupied the federal
    arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, hoping to
    set off a slave rebellion.
  • He had the financial backing of prominent
    abolitionist (the Secret Six)
  • Brown was wounded, taken prisoner, quickly tried
    for treason against the state, and hanged at
    Charlestown (Dec. 2, 1859)
  • Rumors of insurrection terrified the South
  • Viewed as a martyr by Northern abolitionists
  • Problem is that moderate Northerners openly speak
    out against Browns exploits, but the South
    concluded that the violent abolitionist view was
    wide-spread in the North

John Brown Martyr or Madman?
The 1860 Election Democrats
  • Finally split at its 1860 convention in
    Charleston, South Carolina
  • When a proposed platform defending slavery was
    defeated, Deep South delegates walked out
  • Reassembling in Baltimore in June, the convention
    nominated Stephen Douglas for president with a
    platform of popular sovereignty and against
    obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law
  • The Southerners then met and nominated John
    Breckenridge of KY with a pro-slavery platform,
    extending slavery to the territories and annexing

The 1860 Election Constitutional Union Party
  • A convention dominated by moderates from border
    states, nominated John Bell of Tennessee with a
    reconciliation platform
  • The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement
    of Laws

The 1860 Election Republicans
  • Republican Party Met in Chicago, Illinois
  • Local supporters in the galleries helped Abraham
    Lincoln secure the nomination on the third ballot
  • The platform opposed the extension of slavery but
    defended the right of states to control their own
    domestic institutions
  • Broad support was gained through planks favoring
    a homestead act, a protective tariff, and
    transportation improvements (Pacific railroad
    paid for by the federal government)

Abraham LincolnRepublican
John BellConstitutional Union
Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrat
John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrat
1860 Election A Nation Coming Apart?!
Election of 1860
  • 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.

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Compromise one more time?
  • Senator James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky
    proposes amendments to the Constitution that
    would prohibit slavery north of 3630, but
    protecting it south of that line in all
    territories, including ones that would be
  • Lincoln rejects this scheme, because he opposes
    the expansion of slavery
  • By February 1861, the Confederate States of
    America is created with seven states and
    Jefferson Davis as president
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