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Title: Exploring%20and%20Colonizing%20North%20America


1
Exploring and Colonizing North America
  • Spain, France, and England

2
  • Essential Question What are the similarities
    differences among the Spanish, French, British
    patterns of colonization in North America?

3
America Prior to the Arrival of Europeans
4
Early Human Migrations
1st Migration, 38,000-1800 BCE 2nd Migration, c.
10,000-4,000 BCE 3rd Migration, c. 8,000-3,000 BCE
5
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6
Eastern Woodland Cultures
  • Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, Native
    Americans lived in smaller, mobile bands
  • Farming was supplemented by hunting and gathering
  • Eastern woodland Indians were likely the first
    natives to be encountered by English settlers

7
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8
Locations of Major Indian Groups and Culture
Areas in the 1600s
9
When Worlds Collide
  • What was the impact of Spanish, French, and
    English settlement in North America on Native
    Americans?

10
Voyages of European Exploration
11
European movement
EUROPEAN MOVEMENT ONTO NATIVE AMERICAN LAND
12
Exploration Direct Causes 3 Gs
  • Political Become a world power through gaining
    wealth and land. (GLORY)
  • Economic Search for new trade routes with direct
    access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich
    individuals and their nations (GOLD)
  • Religious spread Christianity and weaken Middle
    Eastern Muslims. (GOD)
  • The 3 motives reinforce each other

13
European explore
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION 1400 TO 1600
  • EFFECTS
  • Europeans reach and settle Americas
  • Expanded knowledge of world geography
  • Growth of trade, mercantilism and capitalism
  • Indian conflicts over land and impact of disease
    on Indian populations
  • Introduction of the institution of slavery
  • Columbian Exchange

14
NEW WORLD
OLD WORLD
15
Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods
involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa
Squash Avocado Peppers
Sweet Potatoes Turkey
Pumpkin Tobacco Quinine
Cocoa Pineapple Cassava
POTATO Peanut Tomato
Vanilla MAIZE
Syphillis
Olive Coffee Beans Banana
Rice Onion Turnip
Honeybee Barley Grape
Peach Sugar Cane
Oats Citrus Fruits Pear
Wheat HORSE Cattle
Sheep Pig
Smallpox Flu
Typhus Measles
Malaria Diptheria Whooping Cough
16
The Columbian Exchange
17
Old World to New World New World to Old World
Diseases Smallpox, Measles, Chicken PoxMalaria, Yellow Fever, Influenza, The Common Cold Syphilis
Animals Horses, Cattle, Pigs, SheepGoats, Chickens Turkeys, Llamas, Alpacas, Guinea Pigs
Plants Rice WheatBarleyOatsCoffeeSugarcaneBananasMelonsOlivesDandelionsDaisiesCloverRagweedKentucky Bluegrass Corn (Maize)Potatoes (White Sweet Varieties)Beans (Snap, Kidney, Lima Varieties)TobaccoPeanutsSquashPeppersTomatoesPumpkinsPineapplesCacao (Source of Chocolate)Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum)PapayasGuavasAvocados
18
The Spanish Colonies in America
19
The Spanish
  • Started in Caribbean, then Central and South
    Americamost important was conquest of Aztecs by
    Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531)
  • First permanent colonies in what will become
    United States are founded by Spain
  • St. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to
    protect Spanish treasure fleets

20
Georgia
21
  • Spanish soldiers who came to the New World to
    help conquer and settle the Americas for Spain.
  • Some of their methods were harsh and brutal
    especially to the Native American population.
  • With every Spanish explorer were conquistadors
    and members of the Catholic Church to convert
    Native Americans.

22
A World Transformed
  • Native Americans were eager for European trade
    they were not initially victims of Spanish
    exploration
  • They became dependent on and indebted to
    Europeans
  • Disease decimated perhaps 95 of Native American
    population

23
Cycle of Conquest Colonization
Explorers
Conquistadores
Missionaries
EuropeanColonialEmpire
Permanent Settlers
24
From Plunder to Settlement
  • By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards immigrated to the
    New World
  • Mostly unmarried males came to New World
    intermarriage led to mixed-blood mestizos
    mulattos
  • Distinguished between social classes
    peninsulares creoles
  • The Spanish govt operated strict control over
    the colonies

Whites from Spain
Whites born in America
25
Spanish Conquests Colonies
The Spanish used the encomienda system to create
large cash crop plantations using Native American
African slave labor
Spanish missionaries focused heavily on
converting Native Americans establishing
missions
26
The Colonial Class System
PeninsularesSpanish ancestory
CreolesSpanish and Black mixture.
MestizosSpanish and Indian mixture
MulattosWhite American and Black mixture
Black Slaves
Native Indians
27
What type of relationship existed between the
Spanish and the Native Americans living in N.Am?
  • Native people learned about new tools, grow food,
    raise sheep
  • Many converted to Catholicism
  • Spanish learned new farming techniques
  • Harsh treatment of Native Americans for slave
    labor
  • Beating of those who did not convert
  • Disease, death
  • Rebellion

28
Hernando Desoto Spanish Explorer
  • Explored Southeast region of America in 1540.
  • Encountered numerous Creek Indian tribes in
    Georgia, as well as food such as peaches.
  • Crossed Chattahoochee, Flint, Ocmulgee, Oconee,
    and Savannah Rivers.

29
Hernando de Soto
30
Spanish Settlements in Georgia
  • From 1578 to 1583 the Spanish Catholics built two
    separate chains of missions. One led from San
    Augustin north along the Atlantic coast, into
    present day coastal Georgia. The Guale tribes
    were temporarily subdued near what is St.
    Catherines Island today.
  • In 1597 the Franciscans in Guale interfered with
    the mission Indians once too often and they
    rebelled. The missions along coastal Georgia were
    destroyed and most of the friars murdered before
    soldiers stopped the uprising by 1601.
  • Although the Yamasees and Lower Creeks sought
    Spanish protection in the following years, and
    Spanish Indians continued to harass English
    settlers along the southern frontier, Spain's
    plans for hegemony in the Southeast disappeared
    along with the missions.
  • More info on Spanish missions in Georgia HERE!

31
  • Spanish empire by the 1600s consisted of
  • Southern part of North America
  • Central America
  • Caribbean Islands
  • Most of outer South America

32
The French Colonies in America
33
The French
  • French settle Quebec (1608) Montreal (1642) and
    what would become Canada
  • Control St. Lawrence River access to interior
    of North America
  • Develop a fur trade

34
The French Claim Canada
  • In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec
    French Empire eventually included St. Lawrence
    River, Great Lakes, Mississippi R.
  • The French govt strictly controlled the colonies
    but made little effort to encourage settlement
  • Because the fur trade was the basis of their
    colonial economy, Indians became valued trading
    partners (not exploitive like Spain)

35
What was the relationship between the French and
Native Americans living in North America?
  • Business partners
  • Friendly
  • Huron (in Canada) were close allies
  • Enemies with Iroquois (on East coast with British
    colonies)
  • Diseases killed many

36
Like Spain, the French govt encouraged
converting Native Americans establishing
missions
37
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38
The English Colonies in America
39
English settlements
  • Cabot New Foundland 1582
  • Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize off the
    coast of North Carolina in 1585.
  • Establishes the colony of Roanoke
  • Second attempt in 1585 with 150 men and women

40
Lost Colony of Roanoke
  • Spanish Armada delays supply until 1590
  • No settlers found but buildings are standing
  • CROATOAN written on fence post.
  • Unsolved mystery

41
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42
What was life like in Jamestown?
  • Difficult
  • Swamp area with disease carrying mosquitoes
  • Laziness from settlers
  • John Smith took over during the starving time
  • Native Americans refuse to trade during this time

43
The English Colonies
  • In the 1600s, English settlers arrived in North
    America
  • English colonization differed from Spanish
    French because the English govt had no desire to
    create a centralized empire in the New World
  • Different motivations by English settlers led to
    different types of colonies

44
Migrating to the English Colonies
  • 17th century England faced major social changes
  • The most significant was a boom in population
    Competition for land, food, jobs led to a large
    mobile population (vagrants?)
  • People had choices could move to cities,
    Ireland, Netherlands, or America (but this was
    most expensive dangerous)

45
Migrating to the English Colonies
  • Motives for migration to America
  • Religious purer form of worship
  • Economic Escape poverty or the threat of
    lifelong poverty
  • Personal to escape bad marriages or jail terms
  • Migration to America was facilitated by the
    English Civil War Glorious Revolution

46
The Stuart Monarchs
47
Fort King George
  • First British garrison of the Georgia colony, is
    located in Darien, at the mouth of the Altamaha
    River.
  • Established in 1721 to 1732 as the southernmost
    outpost of British North America.
  • Protected Carolina colony against Spanish and
    French as well as possible attacks by the hostile
    Guale Indians.
  • Poor living conditions and a fire that destroyed
    the fort in 1726 led to its disbandment.

Click HERE for a more complete story of Ft. King
George!
From New Georgia Encyclopedia Fort King George,
http//www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp
?idh-2481
48
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49
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50
Types of Colonial Settlements
51
Three types of colonial settlements
Trading Post Colony Plantation Colony Settler colony
Used to trade items For example, French fur traders Grow and sell cash crops, such as rice, indigo, tobacco, Settlers establish new towns and settlements, but linked to their mother country by trade and government.
Did not require a lot of money. Required more money to maintain and build. Required more money to build the towns and settlements.
More difficult to protect. Set up along a water trade route. Easier to protect Easy to protect
Set up along a water trade route. Set up on large areas of land. Set up along the water for irrigation use and trade.
52
European colonization in North America
Spain France England
Plantation colonies in the Caribbean, Florida, and Mexico. Spanish missions converted Indians to Christianity by force, and governed the colonial settlements. Georgias coastal barrier islands served as sites of Spanish missions. Trading post colonies in St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, and Mississippi regions. Port of New Orleans controlled trade in the Gulf of Mexico, threatening Spanish shipping in the area. Fur traders expanded networks throughout all of the Southeastern tribes. Plantation colonies in Southern English colonies. Settler colonies Jamestown based at first on trading, then later became known as a religious settlement. Fort King George at Darien, GA was southern-most outpost to protect Charlestown, South Carolina from Spanish attacks.
53
By the early 1600s, Spain, England, France had
large territorial claims in North America (but
these colonies were not heavily populated,
especially in Spanish French claims)
These colonial claims came largely at the expense
of the Native Americans already living there
54
Colonies in North America
Spanish Colonies French colonies English colonies
Mexico, present day Florida, South western part of South America Inland part of North America and the St. Lawrence river. They set up a variety of colonies in Canada and along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Controlled their colonies with viceroys. Controlled their colonies loosely. Few settlers moved to New France, because it was so rocky, and the temperature was so cold. Built for profit and others built them for religious freedom. England sent governors to rule over their colonies.
Use of Native American labor to work on the large farms. French got along better with the Native Americans than any other European country. English settlers pushed Native Americans off their land.
Treated the Native American harshly. Fur traders England and Spain were the two main powers in the Americas.
Harsh treatment of the Native Americans, Europeans diseases claimed their lives Live among the Native Americans and respected their culture. Did not want to convert the Native Americans, they just wanted their land.
Use of African slaves. Focused on Christianity. Touted religious freedom
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56
Spanish, French, English Colonial Patterns?
  • Answer the following essential question
  • What were the advantages disadvantages of
    Spanish, French, English colonial patterns in
    terms of long-term colonization in America?
  • Create a chart with your ideas.
  • Submit your chart in the 2.B Dropbox.

57
Advantages for long-term colonization Disadvantages for long-term colonization
Spain
France
England
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