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Topic: World Health Threats


Topic: World Health Threats Aim: How do countries undergo an epidemiologic transition? Do Now: Describe what you feel are some of the greatest health threats to the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: World Health Threats

Topic World Health Threats
  • Aim How do countries undergo an epidemiologic
  • Do Now Describe what you feel are some of the
    greatest health threats to the United States and
    the World today.

  • Branch of medicine concerned with the incidence,
    distribution, and control of diseases that affect
    large numbers of people
  • Rely heavily on geographic concepts such as scale
    and connection
  • Epidemiologic Transition Model Focuses on the
    specific causes of death in each stage of the
    demographic transition

World Health Map
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Stage 1- pestilence and famine
  • Infectious parasitic disease key causes of
    human death (e.g. - the Black Plague of
  • About 25 million Europeans died, ½ of the
    continents population
  • Huge impact on economic, social, and political
    makeup of nations

Stage 2- Receding Pandemics
  • Pandemic disease that occurs over a wide
    geographic area and affects a high proportion of
    a given population
  • HIV/AIDS in Africa (modern day), Cholera in the
    Nineteenth Century

  • Cholera was a recurring scourge for decades. A
    second cholera outbreak in New York in 1849
    killed 5,071 out of a population of 500,000. Then
    John Snow, a British physician, plotted the
    locations of cholera cases during an outbreak in
    England in 1854, showing that it was associated
    with contaminated water. With the advances in
    knowledge and sanitation, a third cholera
    outbreak in New York in 1866 was much less
    deadly. Only 591 people died, out of a population
    of 850,000.Photo New York Historical Society

  • Cholera in the Nineteenth Century
  • Distribution of cholera victims and water pumps
    to prove that the cause of the infection was
    contamination of the pump near the corner of
    Broad and Lexington streets

The highest rates of HIV infection are in
sub-Saharan Africa. India and China have
relatively high numbers of HIV-positive adults,
but they constitute a lower percentage of the
total population.
Stages 3 4 Degenerative Human-Created
  • Decrease in deaths from infectious disease
    (Polio, AIDS, Cholera, Yellow Fever, etc), and
    increase in deaths from chronic disorders,
    primarily heart diseases and various cancers
  • Stage 4 (Olshansky, Ault) is simply delayed
    degenerative diseases to do medical advances

Stage 5- Reemergence of Stage 1
  • Reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases.
    3 possible factors
  • Evolution diseases genetically evolve to be
    resistant to medicine (i.e.- Malaria)
  • Poverty Diseases that are expensive to cure
    affect LCDs the most (i.e.- Tuberculosis)
  • Improved Travel/Globalization Increased travel
    within countries and between them causes increase
    in spread of infectious disease

Death from tuberculosis is a good indicator of a
country's ability to invest in health care,
because treating the disease is expensive.
The first cases of avian flu were recorded in
Southeast Asia.
Why Do Some Regions Face Health Threats?
  • Health Care
  • Health conditions vary around the world,
    primarily, because countries possess different
    resources to care for people who are sick.
  • Expenditures on Health Care
  • More than 15 percent of total government
    expenditures in Europe and North America.
  • Less than 5 percent in sub-Saharan Africa and
    South Asia.

  • Health Care Systems
  • Developed Countries
  • Public service available at little or no cost.
  • Government pays more than 70 percent of
    health-care costs in most European countries, and
    private individuals pay about 30 percent of the
  • Developing Countries
  • Private individuals must pay more than half of
    the cost of health care.
  • U.S. is an exception to these generalizations,
    because private individuals are required to pay
    about 55 percent of health care costs making it
    more closely resemble a developing country, in
    regards to health care.

HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURES The lowest levels of per
capita health care expenditure are in sub-Saharan
Africa and South Asia.
  • This document, written by the Edinburgh Board of
    Health in Scotland and distributed in New York
    during the cholera epidemic of 1832, reflects
    misunderstandings of the disease at the time.
    "Remedies" like laudanum -- morphine -- were
    ineffective at best at worst, they added to the
    suffering of the victims. Most doctors did not
    believe that cholera was contagious among people,
    but rather arose from "miasmas," or noxious
    vapors of decaying organic matter. Certain
    activities like drinking of alcohol were believed
    to make one more susceptible to cholera.

  • One-third of the reported cases came from New
    York's Sixth Ward -- the five-sided blue section
    on the map -- which encompassed Five Points. In
    1832, New York's population of a quarter million
    people was concentrated below 14th Street 3,515
    died in the cholera epidemic.Photo New York
    Historical Society

60 Minutes-Bill Melina Gates
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